The Valley of Hinnom commenced at Jerusalem and journeyed eastwards at a precipitous rate until it emptied into the northern parts of the Dead Sea. The Greek Gehenna is a transliteration of the Hebrew phrase Ge-hinnom which, in a handful of variations throughout the OT, functions primarily as a toponym or “place-name.”2See Josh. If the modern Bir Ayyub is En-rogel, then Wadi ar-Rababi, which begins there, is Hinnom. Philo likewise does not use this word, but he does use the word “Tartarus.” The term comes from an association with the Valley of Hinnom — but not the one usually repeated. 11:30 to the exiles returning from Babylon camping from Beersheba to Hinnom. It corresponds to the modern el-Biqa`, which falls away to the Southwest from the lip of the valley of Hinnom. Eventually the Hebrew term Gehinnom[31] became a figurative name for the place of spiritual purification for the wicked dead in Judaism. Thereafter, it was deemed to be cursed (Book of Jeremiah 7:31, 19:2–6). In OT times it was used for human sacrifices to the pagan god Molech (cf. If Bir Ayyub is En-rogel, as seems probable, then the Wadi er-Rababi, known traditionally as Hinnom, locates the valley of Hinnom. It is located by Josephus between Jerusalem and Bethlehem (Ant., VII, iv, i; xii, 4). Here they surrendered: as prisoners, they were at last entitled to some bread. The passage in Kings locates the place in the valley of the son of Hinnom. After the overthrow of Jerusalem in 586 B.C., and down to New Testament times, incidental references to Tophet or Gehenna () indicate that it was a kind of perpetually burning rubbish-heap, where the refuse of Jerusalem was consumed. the valley of Rephaim, as it is called ( 2 Samuel 5:18) , and here Mount Moriah, as it was to the west of the valley of Hinnom, it was to the north of the valley of Rephaim; which valley, as Josephus F14 says, was not far from Jerusalem, twenty furlongs from it. The main valley is usually considered to be the Tyropeon, or "Cheesemongers' Valley" of Josephus, but some writers have attempted to confine the name especially to this western arm of it. As can be seen by the contour lines of constant elevation, the steepest gradients are on the south of the city, where the deep Kidron and Hinnom valleys rise sharply to the Upper City on the Western Hil, the Lower City just below, and to the Temple Mount (Moriah), separated from the rest of the city by a central valley that Josephus calls the Tyropean Valley. There is some debate whether the idea of the garbage tip was located here, as Josephus omits references to this tradition. [Footnote:] "Day, Molech, 18, esp. Examples of Gehenna in the Christian New Testament include: Another book to use the word Gehenna in the New Testament is James:[38], The New Testament also refers to Hades as a place distinct from Gehenna. name Ge-ben-Hinnom (Ge-Hinnom) became corrupted into Gehenna, which in the NT is used to designate the place of eternal punishment. Jerusalem und sein Gelande. Some Christian scholars, however, have suggested that Gehenna may not be synonymous with the lake of fire, but a prophetic metaphor for the horrible fate that awaited the many civilians killed in the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 A.D.[44][45]. Historians have located the steep Gehenna valley or ravine below the SW wall of ancient Jerusalem. Presently, the Central Valley runs under the Damascus Gate south, then southeast through the middle of the Old City, to the Pool of Siloam and meets the Hinnom and Kidron valleys south of the City of David. In rabbinic literature, Gehenna is also a destination of the wicked. The name given to Hell in Islam, Jahannam, directly derives from Gehenna. This is different from the more neutral Sheol/Hades, the abode of the dead, although the King James Version of the Bible misleadingly translates both with the Anglo-Saxon word hell. 23:10; 2 Chr. In the Hebrew Bible, Gehenna was initially where some of the kings of Judah sacrificed their children by fire. Jeremiah warns the inhabitants of Jerusalem that they face invasion by the Chaldeans, and one of the consequences will be that the bodies of the dead will be buried in the Valley of the Son of Hinnom because there will be no room elsewhere (Jer. Frequent references to 'Gehenna' are also made in the books of Meqabyan, which are considered canonical in the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church. (2 Kings 23). It is a reference to the valley just outside of Jerusalem “variously designated in the Hebrew text as the valley ‘of the sons of Hinnom (2 Kings 23:10), ‘of the son of Hin… Bridges were even built to span the distance between the two hills. The valley had an evil reputation in later OT times because it was the site of Tophet, where parents made their children pass through the fire to Baal and Molech. The oldest historical reference to the valley is found in Joshua 15:8, 18:16 which describe tribal boundaries. The same is said of Ahaz' grandson Manasseh in 33:6. This is known in the Hebrew Bible as Gei Ben-Hinnom,[6] literally the "Valley of the son of Hinnom",[7] and in the Talmud as גיהנם‎ or גהנום‎ Gehinnom. It corresponds to the modern el-Biqa`, which falls away to the Southwest from the lip of the valley of Hinnom. 1. See also A. R. W. Green, The Role of Human Sacrifice in the Ancient Near East (SBLDS 1; Missoula, Mont. According to Jeremiah 7:31 Gehenna is called the valley of the son of Hinnom. The watercourse is know to this very day as the Wady en-Nar (Arabic: The Streambed of Fire). Gehenna (/ɡɪˈhɛnə/, /ɡəˈhɛnə/[1]) or Gehinnom (literally translated as "Valley of Hinnom") is thought to be a small valley in Jerusalem. Josephus does not deal with this aspect of the history of the Hinnom Valley in his descriptions of Jerusalem for a Roman audience. According to Joshua, the valley began at En-rogel. A minority of scholars have attempted to argue that the Bible does not portray actual child sacrifice, but only dedication to the god by fire; however, they are judged to have been "convincingly disproved" (Hay, 2011).[21]. Desperate people tried to leave Jerusalem. According to most Jewish sources, the period of purification or punishment is limited to only 12 months and every Sabbath day is excluded from punishment. Hinnom is Ennom in the OT Greek Septuagint/LXX. It meets and merges with the Kidron Valley, the other principal valley around the Old City, near the southeastern corner of the city. We may still, however, consider the notion historically plausible. Debate remains as to whether the phrase "cause his children to pass through the fire" referred to a religious ceremony in which the moloch priest would walk the child between two lanes of fire, or to literal child sacrifice; throwing the child into the fire. He maintained that in this loathsome valley fires were kept burning perpetually to consume the filth and cadavers thrown into it. Christian usage of Gehenna often serves to admonish adherents of the religion to live pious lives. The lower-level aqueduct, which carried water to Jerusalem in the Second Temple period, skirted the pool. It is also known as the VALLEY OF THE SON OF HINNOM [Josh 15:8; Jer 7:32], the VALLEY OF THE CHILDREN OF HINNOM [2 Kings 23:10], and THE VALLEY [2 Chron 26:9; Neh 2:13, 15]. Day denies it (85). It is a valley just outside Jerusalem. [43] Annihilationist Christians, however, imagine Gehenna to be a place where "sinners" are tormented until they are eventually destroyed, soul and all. 1999, p 182 "The sacrifices of children and the cult of Molech are associated with no other place than the Hinnom Valley. The Book of Isaiah does not mention Gehenna by name, but the "burning place" 30:33 in which the Assyrian army is to be destroyed, may be read "Topheth", and the final verse of Isaiah which concerns of those that have rebelled against God, Isaiah 66:24. Since the Tyropoean valley was incorporated within the city walls before the time of Manasseh, it is extremely unlikely that it could have been the place of the sacrifice of children, which must have been done outside the walls (2 Kings 21:10-15). Since Hezekiah, his legitimate son by the daughter of the High Priest, succeeded him as king, this, if literal, is assumed to mean children by unrecorded pagan wives or concubines. The Kidron Valley runs to the east of the Old City and separates the Mount of Olives from the city proper. [32] After this the soul will move on to Olam Ha-Ba (the world to come), be destroyed, or continue to exist in a state of consciousness of remorse. ", P. Mosca, 'Child Sacrifice in Canaanite and Israelite Religion: A Study on Mulk and "pa' (PhD dissertation. Josephus wrote about the belief of the Pharisees, but Gehenna is not found in his writings, … His father's accession to the Roman throne left the war against the Jews to Titus. It ran along the boundary of Judah and Benjamin (Josh 15:8; 18:16), and was at the entry of the Potsherd Gate (Jer 19:2), not at the “entrance of the east gate,” as the KJV has it. In favor of the eastern or Kidron valley we have the facts that Eusebius and Jerome (Onom) place "Gehennom" under the eastern wall of Jerusalem and the Moslem geographical writers, Muqaddasi and Nasir-i-khusran, call the Kidron valley Wady Jahamum. The NET translators point out, This was the valley along the south side of Jerusalem. Valley of Hinnom, c. 1900. The traditional explanation that a burning rubbish heap in the Valley of Hinnom south of Jerusalem gave rise to the idea of a fiery Gehenna of judgment is attributed to Rabbi David Kimhi's commentary on Psalms 27:13 (ca. The Valley of Hinnom is the modern name for the valley surrounding Jerusalem's Old City, including Mount Zion, from the west and south. The Valley of Hinnom .