Start studying AP World History vocab Ch. The Ashanti Kingdom utterly defeated them at the Battle of Feyiase, proclaiming its independence in 1701. [8] At the height of the Ashanti Kingdom, the Ashanti people became wealthy through the trading of gold mined from their territory. Understanding the early history of the Kingdom of Kongo is complicated by the lack of written sources from the time, as well as the problematic fact that almost all of the later accounts were produced by Europeans. Plants cultivated include plantains, yams, manioc, corn, sweet potatoes, millet, beans, onions, peanuts, tomatoes, and many fruits. [4], Starting in the late 17th century, the Ashanti king Osei Tutu (c.  1695 – 1717) and his adviser Okomfo Anokye established the Ashanti Kingdom, with the Golden Stool of Asante as a sole unifying symbol. The newly declared Ashanti union subsequently waged war against and defeated Denkyira. [19], European contact with the Asante on the Gulf of Guinea coast region of Africa began in the 15th century. The Ashanti defeated the British Empire's invasions in the first two of the four Anglo-Ashanti Wars, killing and keeping British army general Sir Charles MacCarthy's skull as a gold-rimmed drinking cup in 1824. The day before the Adae, Akan drums broadcast the approaching ceremonies. 29 terms. The Ashanti Kingdom had dense populations, allowing the creation of substantial urban centres. From European accounts, the edifice was massive and ornately built. Kente cloth is also worn by the Ewe people, who were under the rule of the Asante kingdom in the late 18th century. Standard phrases called for meetings of the chiefs or to arms, warned of danger, and broadcast announcements of the death of important figures. After a series of campaigns that crushed all opposition, he was installed as Asantehene, or king of the new Asante state, whose capital was named Kumasi. Ashanti Kingdom), • 1931–1957 (last king of the indep. He remained there for several months, was impressed, and on his return to England wrote a book, Mission from Cape Coast Castle to Ashantee. (B) Like many empires-Rome's, Alexander's, and Akbar the Great's, for example-the Ottoman state found it useful to show some respect for religious minorities. : AP World Histroy at Marina High School. [35][36], The Asantehene inherited his position from his queen mother, and he was assisted at the capital, Kumasi, by a civil service of men talented in trade, diplomacy, and the military, with a head called the Gyaasehene. The British and their allies suffered considerable casualties in the war losing numerous soldiers and high ranking army officers. In a murder trial, intent must be established. He attempted to adapt the agencies of Asante government to the changed situation. The approach to the battlefield was typically via converging columns, and tactics included ambushes and extensive maneuvers on the wings. Riparian forests also occur along the Afram River and streams of the savanna zone. Ordinarily, boy twins joined the army and twin girls potential wives of the King. The Guinea Savanna consists of short deciduous and fire resistant trees. [26] The Asantehene (king) directed the Ashanti to not resist, as he feared a genocide. The obirempon (literally "big man") was personally selected by the Asantahene and was generally of loyal, noble lineage, frequently related to the Asantahene. [32] These buildings served as palaces and shrines as well as houses for the affluent. The hyphenation was subsequently dropped and the name Ashanti remained, with various spellings including Ashantee common into the early 20th century. They are lofty and regular, and the cornices of a very bold cane-work in alto-relievo. The council of elders undertake actions only after consulting a representative of the nmerante. The surviving designated sites are shrines, but there have been many other buildings in the past with the same architectural style. In 1819, English traveler and author, Thomas Edward Bowdich described the palace as, ...an immense building of a variety of oblong courts and regular squares [with] entablatures exuberantly adorned with bold fan and trellis work of Egyptian character. The Ashanti Kingdom was established from the midlands down to the coast. The Asante Empire (Asante Twi: Asanteman) was an Akan empire and kingdom from 1701 to 1957, in what is now modern-day Ghana. Some Ashanti men felt more comfortable taking a slave girl or pawn wife in marriage, as she would have no abusua (older male grandfather, father, uncle or brother) to intercede on her behalf when the couple argued. It invokes religious, rather than secular-legal postulates. The insane cannot be executed because of the absence of responsible intent - except for murder or cursing the King; in the case of cursing the king, drunkenness is a valid defense. Term Definition; Nzinga Mvemba: Ruler of the Kong kingdom (1507-1543); converted to Christianity; his efforts to integrate Portuguese and African ways foundered because of the slave trade. People loathed being alone for long without someone available to perform this rite before the sick collapsed. If there is only one witness, their sworn oath assures the truth is told. 40 terms. During wartime, the King acted as Supreme Commander of the army, although during the 19th century, the fighting was increasingly handled by the Ministry of War in Kumasi. According to folklore, Okomfo Anokye is believed to have visited Agona-Akrofonso. The King can be impeached, de-stooled (de-throned), if the Elders and the people turn against him. The Ashanti viewed them as ritually unclean. “We went to the king’s palace, which consists of many courtyards, each surrounded with alcoves and verandahs, and having two gates or doors, so that each yard was a thoroughfare . Chapter 20 Outline – AP World History. View Homework Help - 001GuidedReading27(TheNewImperialism1869-1914) (2) from HISTORY AP World H at Terra Environmental Research Institute. [5][6] Osei Tutu oversaw a massive Ashanti territorial expansion, building up the army by introducing new organisation and turning a disciplined royal and paramilitary army into an effective fighting machine. African kingdom on the Gold Coast that expanded rapidly after 1680. Centered on Kumasi, Asante was between the coast and the inland Hausa and Mande trading regions. Both Bowdich and Dupuis secured a treaty with the Asantehene. A British Resident was permanently placed in the city of Kumasi, and soon after a British fort was built there[citation needed]. Was a syncretic Christian movement formed in the kingdom of Kongo. The British were impressed by the size of the palace and the scope of its contents, including "rows of books in many languages. Due to the empire's military prowess, wealth, architecture, sophisticated hierarchy and culture, the Ashanti Kingdom has been extensively studied and has more books written by European, primarily British authors than any other indigenous cul… The Asante Kingdom: The West African region of Southern Ghana was once the location of the powerful Asante (Ashanti) Kingdom which flourished from the late 1600s CE to the end of the 1800s CE. 8 Asante An empire established in Gold Coast among Akan people settled around from HISTORY 70552 at Conestoga Valley Shs. [4] In 1701, the Ashanti army conquered Denkyira, giving the Ashanti access to the Gulf of Guinea and the Atlantic Ocean coastal trade with Europeans, notably the Dutch.[4]. At the top of Ashanti's power structure sat the Asantehene, the King of Ashanti. These commuted sentences by King and chiefs sometimes occur by ransom or bribe; they are regulated in such a way that they should not be mistaken for fines, but are considered as revenue to the state, which for the most part welcomes quarrels and litigation. "The Downfall of Prepmeh" by Robert Baden-Powell, 1896, the American edition is available for download at, guidelines on the use of different tenses, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Asante – The People Of A Wealthy Gold-Rich Empire – BlackFaces", "Ashanti.com.au Our King - Nana Kwaku Dua is now Otumfuo Osei Tutu II, Asanthene", Slavery in the Asante Empire of West Africa, http://www.thedump.scoutscan.com/dumpinventorybp.php, "Historical Reminisciences: Great Empires Of Yore (Part 15) By Mike Ozekhome, SAN", "The symbolic significance of motifs on selected Asante religious temples", "The Daily Advertiser - Google News Archive Search", the Ashanti Kingdom Encyclopedia - Britannica Online Encyclopedia, UC San Diego - Asante Language Program - Directed Study, BBC News | Africa | Funeral rites for Ashanti king, the Ashanti Kingdom Osei Tutu Encyclopedia - Britannica Online Encyclopedia, Rulers of the Akan state of Akuapem Okere, Rulers of the Akan state of Akuapem Anafo, Rulers of the Akan state of Assin Apimenem, Rulers of the Akan state of Assin Atadanso, Rulers of the Akan state of Bono-Tekyiman, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ashanti_Empire&oldid=995559341, States and territories established in 1670, States and territories disestablished in 1902, States and territories established in 1935, States and territories disestablished in 1957, Articles containing Asante Twi-language text, Pages using infobox country or infobox former country with the flag caption or type parameters, Pages using infobox country or infobox former country with the symbol caption or type parameters, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2019, Articles lacking in-text citations from July 2013, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, "Empire" as a description of foreign policy, This page was last edited on 21 December 2020, at 18:35. The King typically exacts or commutes all capital cases. The Ashanti state, in effect, was a theocracy. People After the death of Osei Tutu in either 1712 or 1717, a period of internal chaos and factional strife was ended with the accession of Opoku Ware (ruled c. 1720–50), under whom Asante reached its fullest extent in the interior of the country. Practitioners of harmful (evil) forms of sorcery and witchcraft receive death but not by decapitation, for their blood must not be shed. The elders circumscribed the power of the Ashantihene, and the chiefs of other divisions considerably checked the power of the King. There was fighting, casualties on both sides, but the governor's request for troops from England was declined and sickness forced the withdrawal of his West Indian troops. They defend the "humanity" of Ashanti slavery by noting that those slaves were allowed to marry. As the Ashanti believed in an after-life, families felt they would be reunited with their ancestors upon death. The Asante Empire (Asante Twi: Asanteman) was an Akan empire and kingdom from 1701 to 1957, in what is now modern-day Ghana. [15] The stool remains sacred to the Ashanti as it is believed to contain the Sunsum — spirit or soul of the Ashanti people. However, he does not enjoy absolute rule. Asante participated in the Atlantic economy, trading gold, slaves, and ivory. If a menstruating woman entered the ancestral stool (shrine) house, she was arrested, and the punishment could result in death. [49] but in the end the firepower was too much to overcome for the Ashanti. In the Ashanti–Akim–Akwapim War, the kingdom faced the Akim–Akwapim alliance. Families with many children are well respected and barren women scoffed at. Armament was primarily with firearms, but some historians hold that indigenous organization and leadership probably played a more crucial role in Ashanti successes. It resisted British imperial ambitions for a quarter century before being absorbed into Britain. This favored arrangement occurred primarily because of what some men considered their conflict with the matrilineal system. With these were many specimens of Moorish and Ashanti handicraft.”. . They receive execution by strangling, burning, or drowning. In this hierarchical structure, every chief or King swore fealty to the one above him—from village and subdivision, to division, to the chief of Kumasi, and finally the Ashantihene swore fealty to the State.[5]. [1] Nevertheless, the occurrence of slave sacrifices in the Ashanti empire paints a rather different picture then the supposed "humane" slavery claimed by apologists. Access study documents, get answers to your study questions, and connect with real tutors for AP WORLD 101? Construction and design consisted of a timber framework filled up with clay and thatched with sheaves of leaves. Osei Tutu and his successors oversaw a policy of political and cultural unification and the union had reached its full extent by 1750. Search this site. [20] His praise of the kingdom was disbelieved as it contradicted prevailing prejudices. Shortly thereafter, Governor William Maxwell arrived in Kumasi as well. World History - Chapter 14 - questionMoluccas answera group of islands in eastern Indonesia; was the center of the spice trade in the 1500s and 1600s questionPrince Henry answerruled ... Asante kingdom. In this meeting the Golden Stool was commanded down from the heavens by Okomfo Anokye, chief-priest or sage advisor to Asantehene Osei Tutu I and floated down from the heavens into the lap of Osei Tutu I. Okomfo Anokye declared the stool to be symbolic of the new Asante Union (the Ashanti Kingdom), and allegiance was sworn to the stool and to Osei Tutu as the Asantehene. The link between mother and child centers the entire network, which includes ancestors and fellow men as well. Joseph Dupuis, the first British consul in Kumasi, arrived on March 23, 1820. Saved by Shakadoodoo. Asante participated in the Atlantic economy, trading gold, slaves, and ivory. 3 terms. Ap world history chapter 20 terms Learn with flashcards, games, and more — for free. [42] In 1807 disputes with the Fante led to the Ashanti–Fante War, in which the Ashanti were victorious under Asantehene Osei Bonsu ("Bonsu, the whale"). At first they fought very impressively in an open battle against superior numbers of British allied forces, including Denkyirans. [16] King Osei Kofu Tutu I and his chief advisor, Okomfo Kwame Frimpong Anokye led a coalition of influential Ashanti city-states against their mutual oppressor, the Denkyira who held the Ashanti Kingdom in its thrall. This in practical effect created a system of checks and balances. The Asante war machine was successful in defeating the alliance in open combat pushing their enemies towards the Akwapim hills. If the homicide is accidental, the murderer pays compensation to the lineage of the deceased. Cursing the King, calling down powers to harm the King, is considered an unspeakable act and carries the weight of death. It resisted British imperial ambitions for a quarter century before being absorbed into Britain. The effects of Islamization were felt widely in the west African interior by the 1840s. The fifth child (unlucky five) can expect misfortune. The Ashanti transformed palm wine, maize and millet into beer, a favorite drink; and made use of the oil from palm for many culinary and domestic uses. Under this kinship system, children were considered born into the mother's clan and took their status from her family. A.P. It made subject peoples easier to govern, and if one taxed them if they refused to convert (as the Ottomans did), the practice was profitable as well. The Ashanti Empire was one of a series of kingdoms along the coast including Dahomey, Benin, and Oyo. This senior female then consulted the elders, male and female, of that line. They decapitate those who commit suicide, the conventional punishment for murder. Also, Britain took control of Ashanti land claimed by the Dutch. Menstruating women lived in special houses during their periods as they were forbidden to cross the threshold of men's houses. The Ashanti held puberty rites only for females. The stool treasurer gathers sheep and liquor that will be offered. It is believed that the Ewe, who had a previous tradition of horizontal loom weaving, adopted the style of kente cloth production from the Asante—with some important differences. They were hospitably welcomed and were used as an excuse for war in 1873. [13] The Ashanti became tributaries of another Akan state, Denkyira but in the mid-17th century the Oyoko under Chief Oti Akenten started consolidating the Ashanti clans into a loose confederation against the Denkyira.[14]. Declining trade relations and disputes over the Fante region caused friction over the following decade and led to warfare in the 1820s. [34] Thomas Edward Bowdich visited the Ashanti Empire in the 19th century and described entablatures in Ashanti architecture such as the Ashanti Palace which was destroyed during the Anglo-Ashanti war. The squares have a large apartment on each side, open in front, with two supporting pillars, which break the view and give it all the appearance of the proscenium or front of the stage of the older Italian theaters. ... began centralization and expansion of Asante. The variant name "Ashanti" comes from British reports that transcribing "Asante" as the British heard it pronounced, as-hanti. Education in the Ashanti Kingdom was conducted by Asante and imported scholars and Ashanti people would often attend schools in Europe for their higher education. It is a time of cleansing of sin from society the defilement, and for the purification of shrines of ancestors and the gods. The royal family typically topped the hierarchy, followed by the families of the chiefs of territorial divisions. Asante dialect (Twi) and Akan, the language of the Ashanti people is tonal and more meaning is generated by tone. Home. The introduction of the Golden Stool (Sika dwa) was a means of centralization under Osei Tutu. Its judicial system emphasizes the Ashanti conception of rectitude and good behavior, which favors harmony among the people. In their struggle against the suzerain state of Denkyera and lesser neighbouring states, the Asante people made little headway until the accession, probably in the 1670s, of Osei Tutu. Before the Council of Elders and the King's Court, the litigants orate comprehensively. Osei Kwadwo (1764–1777) began the meritocratic system of appointing central officials according to their ability, rather than their birth.[28]. . He preferred such an arrangement to that of a free woman in a conventional marriage, because marriage to an enslaved woman allowed the children to inherit some of the father's property and status. [8], Ashanti political organization was originally centered on clans headed by a paramount chief or Amanhene. 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