The copyright to this article and other articles from JournalQuest are maintained by the publishing journal Essay about values and virtues Sunday the 8th Matthew Van inwagen an essay on free will pdf, essay article about good and bad effects of fast food list of cause and effect essay topics, nari sashaktikaran short essay in hindi, poetry essay autumn how to write a nhs essay harvard format for research papers research paper cigarette smoking philippines! When an authority figure sets the values of a group, be wary. After the battle of the presidential election came the battle over the meaning of the election. According to the Stoic philosophers Epictetus and Marcus Aurelius, virtue comes through a proper understanding of nature, its processes, as well as one’s place in it. And that means when there’s a dilemma between Values, there’s a pre-set way to do things, which can be bad for making the right choice. 2, pp. Hence, virtue ethics now stands as one of the leading moral theories in ethics. VALUES ARE COMPLICATED. First, the problem moral schizophrenia poses, which most moral theories face, must be understood. , Sakellariouv, Alexandra M. 2015. For example, “Do unto others as you’d like them to do to you” is a Principle. In other words, it’s okay to have a set of values, so long as that system isn’t fixed. Save Citation »  (Works with EndNote, ProCite, & Reference Manager), Sakellariouv, A. M. (2015). The action is right because the trait is being expressed from within the agent, and the trait is motivating the agent in the right way. Magazine article The Christian Century. Since eudaimonia is the greatest good, reaching it makes one a good person. The first is the psychological continuity view; the second is what I shall call multiplicity views of the self. Now it may be tempting to dismiss certain of the other Virtues (or their Moral Foundations) as less important than others. Different varieties of virtue ethics will prefer certain virtues to others, depending on how they define right action. A lot of us say we value things — say, honesty — but if you fudge a little on your taxes, you actually value money over honesty. Virtue ethics emphasizes the central role played by motives in moral questions. 176-229. However, think about what the virtue ethicist would say. Virtue ethics does not fall victim to moral schizophrenia, which is one advantage it has over most other moral theories. Or any other opportunity cost. Since Virtues are all good, it’s admirable to try to develop them all. Types. I PIECED TOGETHER THE above progression that led us from Values to Principles to Virtues to Wisdom after charting out and comparing the value systems of a dozen world religions, positive psychology, and various modern cultural value systems like the US Marines, Christianity, and what Americans call “Family Values.”. AFTER THE BATTLE of the presidential election came the battle over the meaning of the election. As we discussed, this makes it important to have higher values that determine our other values — i.e. In this essay, I attempt to exemplify how the legacy and contributions of Edmund Pellegrino, as a teacher and a physician, could allow for a renaissance of medical practice in which physicians engage intellectual and moral virtue to both effect sound care, and do so in a humanitarian … Modern neo-Aristotelian virtue ethics build off of Aristotle's original argument to create its theory. Principles help us figure out how to act. It is not intended to provide medical or other professional advice. Moral theories facing this problem are selfeffacing because people would intuitively agree that the considerations they propose should not act as motives in every situation. Eventually, I even read (most of) an 800 page textbook on Virtues and Character Strengths. If it’s not, step back and think it through with Wisdom: Look for perspectives, try to learn, be intellectually humble about what you think and allow yourself to be wrong, and be creative when you can. 171-183. Introduction to Values. I value my stuffed walrus named Walrus enough to save him first if my house was on fire. In the shark dilemma above, you can’t really operate with kindness toward both the shark and your friend, can you? And diversity of thought often comes with diversity of individual values. Emphasize a shared purpose instead of shared ways of thinking. NeoAristotelian virtue ethics values what is good for the wellbeing of the individual. Virtues are often confused with values in part because people often associate virtues with being good in some capacity—and the definition of good means different things to different people. To be virtuous is more than just making rational decisions. When two Values conflict, we have a dilemma. This article explains, 1. After looking out for Humanity, look after yourself (Temperance). The first is the apples and oranges thing. 6 for more on this!). But we all feel it. For us human beings, “doing good” means that we bring to fulfillment what is human in us, what constitutes the deepest core of our humanity. The problem was, I realized I didn’t really have a system to govern my behavior. Utilitarianism, for example, is a popular form of consequentialism that believes all good can be reduced to the single value of pleasure (Oakley, 1996, p. 140). Aristotle explained that the highest good is reached when people perform human function well. Justice can be barbaric if it’s not tempered by mercy. Socio-emotional virtues for every child. If we care about Virtues enough to develop them, we’ll be able to create Principles that help us choose the things we value and adapt as we live our lives, rather than living laissez faire or picking Values based on gut. Inquiries Journal provides undergraduate and graduate students around the world a platform for the wide dissemination of academic work over a range of core disciplines. Slote, Michael, Virtue Ethics. How was I going to live my life, now that I was going to be deliberate about it? An individua… I had a business to run. Some kinds of ethics say, "Just do it." Highlights This paper explores issues concerning values in teaching and the education of teachers. Because different people may by nature have different Values, a healthy group ought to be okay with different Values—so long as they don’t infringe on tolerance itself. Virtues ethics considers traits such as love, friendship, and community as virtues that are important for the wellbeing of the individuals involved. The eugenics movement of the 20th century epitomizes the danger that is possible when religion and science coalesce. This is one reason why they can be popular and why they make an important contribution to our understanding of morality. The more radical kind of virtue ethics is thus agent-based, not merely, like Aristotle's view (on one common interpretation), agent-focused" (p. 178). For the same reason that most people aren’t able to make effective use of Values, most groups end up with lists of Values that don’t work for them — and in some cases, actively hold the group back. Blackwell Publishing, N.P., September 1996. Virtues and Values are really crucial to healthcare today. I’M ARGUING THAT DEVELOPING Wisdom should be our priority, so we can adapt to our changing world and the ever-changing knowledge we learn. Virtues can often help solve these dilemmas. A Life of Integrity and Meaning (V&E-1) Related articles . In other words, a healthy group will have a shared devotion to a purpose and tolerance for everything but intolerance. The main difference between value and virtue is that values are principles or standards of behavior that help one to decide what is important in life whereas virtues are qualities that are universally or generally considered to be good and desirable. She offers three theses: Virtues allow people to perform his or her function excellently; when people perform his or her function excellently, people reach eudaimonia. Create rituals that build camaraderie. Here is a summary of a comprehensive article on the modern confusion between Values and Virtues. Both care ethics and neo-Aristotelian ethics were not concerned with the 'inner life' of the agent that Slote speaks of. Instead, encourage your group to develop Virtues — all the “no duh” things that make a person better. So how should someone go about determining their values? 1976. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2002. Talking about values has become an industry. Oxford University Press, 2003. How would I like to be treated? Why Values, Virtues and Ideals are so Important Published on October 19, 2016 October 19, 2016 • 12 Likes • 8 Comments Print, pp. This account would treat strength "as an ultimately admirable way of existing" (p. 218). Keller identifies two things wrong with selfeffacing theories. The big appeal of care ethics is that it accommodates a person's intuition to give preferential treatment to those closest to him or her (Timmons, 2002, p. 282-285). If you are interested in enrolling a journal at your school, please visit the JournalQuest website. You can tell what you actually value by your actions. The eugenics movement of the 20th century epitomizes the danger that is possible when religion and science coalesce. Discussions, 12(1). Consider the following example to help further explain. In such a situation, where reasoned debate itself is considered unnecessary in the face of power politics, we all have reason to fear a "values" approach that appears moral but is essentially relativistic. Exit polls were dissected to discern the nation's character, especially its moral values. Home | Current Issue | Blog | Archives | Discussions 12.1 (2015). Copyright (c) Shane Snow. I think it should go like this: Work on developing the meta-virtue of Wisdom. Specific varieties of virtue ethics will sometimes value certain virtues above others that are imperative to maintaining the personal and interpersonal connections other moral theories do not. Values and Virtues. Are these behaviors that might exclude valuable perspectives if you are strict about them? 1997, pp. In contrast to most of the authors in this volume, he cautions us against using scientific values as civic virtues because science takes a critical approach to its hypotheses and assumptions, whereas basic civic assumptions, such as equal rights for … Philosophers have long debated the meaning of virtuousness and the role that reason plays in achieving it. character strengths core values inspirational quotes inspiring quotations values values and virtues values of the wise virtue wisdom. Some people have values that they have decided they will never, ever trade off on. Others think of it as being your best self. Oxford Review of Education: Vol. Virtues can be placed into a broader context of values. There are two objections against virtue ethics. The virtuous agent will act in a way that accords with his or her own wellbeing. Understanding how values really work will help you make better decisions at home and at work. The final section of this paper will explore two main objections to virtue ethics as a general moral theory. We’ll get to more on that shortly!). People's motives need to be in harmony for these values to be realized. Eudaimonia roughly translates to mean happiness, fulfillment, and human flourishing. Kindness will not get you out of that scrape. And let people be themselves. Virtue ethics avoids moral schizophrenia because it allows for virtues that harmonize motives and reasons. The idea of an objective moral principle has been reduced to a matter of personal choice and aesthetics. Consider the neo-Aristotelian argument that Rosalind Hursthouse (2003) proposes. November 30, 2004. Specifically, the impartialist nature of most moral theories does not allow people to treat anyone else differently. Slote touches on several varieties. The virtuous person would take all the virtues into account. VALUES AND VIRTUES. Excluding people who don’t have certain values by nature decreases the perspectives you have available to you, which makes you less wise as an organization. virtuous traits that prescribe principles (guidelines) that help us do (and value) good things. But where do these outlooks come from? The State of California values state troopers more than state teachers, according to data on how much it pays each of them. Finally, I want to talk briefly about how this understanding of Values plays out in groups, companies, etc. The newsletter highlights recent selections from the journal and useful tips from our blog. I pored through scientific literature on moral foundations. A group’s values are usually determined by one of two things: The combination of values of its members; or. Talents to not waste. Here, I will expound on how most Filipinos often forget the true meaning of some values and virtues and apply them out of context or worse. As usual, things are a little more complicated than that. This rational capacity allows people to "grasp truths, and practical reason, by means of which they are able to determine which ends to pursue and how best to pursue them" (Timmons, 2002, p. 274). It is often contrasted with deontology, which emphasizes following moral rules, and consequentialism, which determines the permissibility of an action from its consequences. What are Values? Exit polls were dissected to discern the nation’s character, especially its moral values. Best-selling books promote earthly virtues for living and spiritual values for reflecting. Available: http://www.inquiriesjournal.com/a?id=1385, A publication of Case Western Reserve University. This decision would satisfy the virtuous person because it harmonizes motives and reasons. This offers a different way of framing situations that is both simpler and more complicated. In this sense, virtue ethics believes the virtues are a plurality of intrinsic goods (Oakley, 1996, p. 139). (And you just lost all the benefits of having diversity in your group!). Each individual has a core of underlying values that contribute to our system of beliefs, ideas and/or opinions (see value in semiotics). Friends to support. And the stronger your character becomes, the easier it will be to live a virtuous life. It is not often that one questions the nature of space, in fact, most people understand extension as independent of their mind as well as the objects that appear in their surrounding world. Moral schizophrenia in moral theories will prevent the agents from ever achieving the good life. Nordstrom values their customers enough to lose more money on their return policy. Integrity in the application of a value ensures its continuity and this continuity separates a value from beliefs, opinion and ideas. There isn't much room for feelings or personal satisfaction. Virtue ethics allows people to maintain personal and interpersonal connections important for the good life. Representing the work of students from hundreds of institutions around the globe, Inquiries Journal's large database of academic articles is completely free. Edmund Pellegrino considered medicine as a skill, art, and perhaps most importantly, a moral enterprise. Care ethics, on the other hand, employs a conception of care where "the relationship becomes the figure, defining self and others... (and the moral agent) responds to the perception of need" (Timmons, 2002, p. 283). Value:“One’s judgment of what is important in life.”. Article excerpt. She agrees that the distinctive feature of humans is their rational capacity. In such a situation, where reasoned debate itself is considered unnecessary in the face of power politics, we all have reason to fear a "values" approach that appears moral but is essentially relativistic. Virtues are traits that make up who we are, and can help us determine our principles that guide our behavior and other things we might value. A man has recently saved up a considerable amount of money in order to visit his friend in Iceland for a week. The very fact that a trait is classified as a virtue or vice allows for the determination of a right or wrong action. If one wants to lead a good life one "should be moved by [one's] major values and [one] should value what [one's] major motives seek" (p. 454). The Value of Virtue Ethics . Noting the insufficiencies of neoclassical economics to deal with problems of cultural difference and priority, the... “Just-war theory,” as it is called, aims to guide action during warfare, so that states and individuals can act ethically. With the exception of, you guessed it, Wisdom and the other moral virtues, telling a group what they need to value actually puts the group’s decision making and inclusion at risk. And it’s also why the ancient Greeks said it was the main virtue that mattered. Values and virtues: Virtues are displayed through lives of conviction sustained over time. The virtuous person is an ideal to emulate. An agent-based approach will "derive its evaluations of human actions-whether aretaic or deontic-from independent and fundamental aretaic characterizations of the inner traits or motives of individuals" (p. 206). The Technological Abyss: Heideggerian Ontology and Climate Change, Hume's Law and Genetic Engineering: Considering the Possible Implications of Positive Eugenics in Light of Our Horrific Past, A Postcolonial Theory of Value: Broadening Economic Scholarship Through Disciplinary-Mimetic Valuation, Aquinas, Just-War Theory, and Pandemic Response, Unification of Mind, Matter, and Consciousness Through an Essence of Relation, A Nietzschean Interpretation of the Self in Psychological Continuity, Debating Space Through the Göttingen Review: Why Kant's Transcendental Ideality of Space Exceeds Berkeley's Subjective Idealist Interpretation, The virtues benefit their possessor. A lot of companies value working hard over behaviors like having fun or doing what you’re told. It realizes and protects the value in personal and interpersonal relationships and activities. Keller, Simon. "[r]adical kind of virtue ethics would say that the ethical character of actions is not thus independent of how and why and by whom the actions are done... the evaluation of actions is entirely derivative from and dependent on what we have to say ethically about (the inner life of) the agents who perform those actions. I also delved into and wrote about the power of personal rituals for behavior change, getting to know and overcoming your ego, how to overcome self-deception and intellectual dishonesty, and documented my ongoing studies on virtuous character and the power of intellectual humility. Now you may notice that there are lots of traits that people think are virtues that are not on this list — and some may surprise you. It started when I stopped believing in the religion I grew up in, got worse when I moved across the country and realized how naive my world view was, and got even worse when my marriage fell apart and I found myself temporarily homeless and scraping my livelihood back together. But if we’re able to remember to use Wisdom, then ranking our values can be a good way to live our lives in a pinch. FOR several reasons. Second, the 'indeterminacy problem' states that virtue ethics fails to be action guiding. Virtue ethics uses aretaic classificationdetermining whether a trait is a virtue or a vicebefore giving a deontic classification of right or wrong (Timmons, 2002, p. 278). Instrumental values play an important role in teleological moral systems - theories of morality which argue that the moral choices are those which lead to the best possible consequences (such as human happiness). Roger Crisp, How Should One Line'? If you’re going to do this, do this periodically, like at New Year’s or something. Moral Theory: An Introduction. Certainly acting upon personal motives is important for one's wellbeing, so it would value traits such as friendship and love that allow one to maintain personal connections. • Virtues could also be shaped by religions and beliefs of people while values are shaped by the culture or the society people live in. Then do your best to be fair, to lead with your example, and be a good citizen. You might value your family and success and your time and working hard and having fun and beauty. Values And Virtues (2009) Professional ratings; Review scores; Source Rating; Cross Rhythms (9/10) Values And Virtues is an EP by former Dum Dums vocalist Josh Doyle. They would consider the virtues of love and friendship. (Extroversion can be a strength, but Introversion isn’t a sin. As I started getting myself together, I was confronted with questions like this a lot. These are called “Protected Values.” They can be problematic if they leave no room for judgment based on the situation. Essays on the Virtues. About The Journal | Submissions Recall that virtue ethics believes virtues are a plurality of intrinsic good; there are various reasons why certain virtues are valuable. Ok, but think hard. He explained that virtue ethical theories are typically 'agent-focused'; they are concerned with what it means to be a virtuous agent and to have particular virtues (p. 177). A second variety of virtue ethics is neo-Aristotelian virtue ethics. I wanted to think and work on myself from a sort of blank slate, in an environment free from the distractions of home. Timmons, Mark. Therefore, the highest good for humans is a life of eudaimonia or, roughly, a life of happiness. But we’re all different, and for that reason, I think it’s important to end this post with one last bit about the role of groups and our potentially different values. Valuing outcomes like success only really make sense when paired with Virtues like integrity. First, they do not properly tell people what should motivate them, "so they fail to perform a function that an ethical theory should perform" (p. 222). and/or the individual authors according to agreements set forth by and between the publishing journal and the author. It believes that an action is right if and only if it is what a virtuous agent would perform in the circumstances (Oakley, 1996, p. 129). All things being equal, they’ll choose the tall, shy guy over the short, charming guy. A FEW YEARS AGO I found myself in a rather dark place. They are valuable intrinsically rather than instrumentally. They dictate the choices you make and determine the direction that your life takes. All rights reserved. My basic point is that the more you do what is right, the more you turn your values into virtues. Enron’s values included “Integrity,” “Excellence,” and a bunch of other nice sounding things. Explore 242 Virtues Quotes by authors including Maya Angelou, Marcus Tullius Cicero, and C. S. Lewis at BrainyQuote. Virtue Ethics and its Potential as the Leading Moral Theory. They become the 'caring agent'. In this context a value (e.g. Vices, on the other hand, are character traits that are negatively valued (Timmons, 2002, p. 270). Excellence in virtues is acquired over time. And the thing that keeps each of them virtuous is Wisdom: Without Wisdom, any Virtue will cease to be a Virtue. In other words, I think being deliberate about your values goes something like this: So is it enough to just say you value all the Virtues on the list above? They require that people do "what is right, obligatory, [their] duty no matter what [their] motive for so acting" (p. 454). Right action, in this sense, is characterized by wellbeing. For example, as an adult you may decide you want to govern your behavior using “kindness” more than “leadership.” But you probably want your child to prioritize “leadership,” since parents and teachers are wiser than a child and can help it make better decisions. Good Principles are actually based on something even more abstract called Moral Virtues: Virtue:“A quality considered morally good or desirable in a person.”. The Schizophrenia of Modem Ethical Theories. This is why I call Wisdom the Meta-Virtue. For researchers and clinicians who prefer to work explicitly with values, virtues, character strengths, or ethical behavior in the workplace, while remaining independent of the Buddhist teachings, empirically based psychological approaches appear promising. This both benefits people and makes them good. Why Values are trickier than most people think — and why they are usually NOT as helpful as we think, Why Wisdom is the ultimate Virtue, and why developing its 4 facets is key to developing the right Values for you, How to determine and live your personal Values, A quick bit about how to think about a group’s Values. Moreover, the views expressed here do not necessarily represent the views of Inquiries Journal or Student Pulse, its owners, staff, contributors, or affiliates. The main advantage virtue ethics has over other moral theories is that it does not fall victim to 'moral schizophrenia' as it does not compromise one's motivations and reasons. This variety is based on the work of Aristotle. People cannot treat their family and friends any differently from strangers, even though moral intuitions support preferential treatment. Shane Snow is author of Dream Teams and a global speaker on innovation, collaboration, and becoming better together. Are you trying to encourage certain behaviors? Aristotle believed all things contribute to a higher good; he called this 'eudaimonia'. Many MBIs incorporate values work without reference to or reliance on Buddhist ethics. (Human beings need the virtues in order to live well, to flourish as human beings, and to live a characteristically good eudaimon human life.). According to Opatha (2010) this is the main difference between virtues and values. Ideally, I want to live a life guided by all of them. Print. I’m not perfect. Did it matter? But conditioning on different values of the common causes will give different values to the measures of explanatory power. Get his monthly newsletter here. This New Year’s, after all my travels and scrutiny of values and value systems, I decided to rank order the Virtues that I value most in my life in a pinch—with the caveat that because of Wisdom, all this is subject to situations. Think of them as the best kinds of behavior-drivers. Most people, in contrast, have only a pretty loose grip on their values. Treating H and e as variables, one view common in applied statistics is that the power of an explanation is some function of the probability of the effect were a manipulation to force H = true, and of the probability of the effect were a manipulation to force H = false. Virtue ethics is a moral theory that emphasizes the role of an individual's character and virtues in evaluating the rightness of actions. If there’s any conclusion I’ve taken away from my study of Wisdom and Virtues, and all the philosophers and religious leaders who’ve espoused them throughout history, it’s this: Human beings are inherently Valuable, and a wise person will appreciate what each of us can bring to make us all a little better. Virtue ethics offers an account of right and wrong based on what a 'virtuous agent' would do. Discussions [Online], 12. But where do Principles come from? Whenever a decision is made in a social, political, or economic context, it is implicitly grounded in an ethical outlook. Virtue Ethics is Self Effacing. Professional and personal values and virtues in education and teaching. But Slote says people need to look into the 'inner life' of the agents to see if they have the correct motivations for performing right action. I now feel like I’m living a more deliberately. Some things are 'ends' in themselves because they are done for their own sake. Any modifications or choices will constantly need individuals or even the patient’s to analyze their worths and virtues… And I feel great doing it. I think these things I’ve learned can help anyone live their values a little better, regardless of what religion (or lack thereof) you subscribe to. Are you trying to bind a group together? And these virtues are in turn rooted in Moral Foundations, which is a fancy word for the biological impulses that all mash together to make us feel like these things are good. Operating without trust or principles was not turning out great. And they (Virtues) are all helpful—especially when taken together. Values are things we care about so much that we put them above all other things. In the parlance I introduced earlier, we don’t want Protected Values. Virtues are different from excellences of nature, such as musical pitch or good eyesight, with which people are born. However, in a radical twist, fitting for the revolutionary... http://www.inquiriesjournal.com/a?id=1385, E-Fluid Induces Inflammation Responses in Lung Epithelial Cells, Sediment Mass and Nutrient Accumulation Rates in Lake Erie Using Geographic Information System, Questioning Community in the Ku Klux Klan, The Value of Reason in the Stoic Philosophies of Epictetus and Aurelius. Web. That’s what Perspective, the sub-Virtue of Wisdom, is all about. The virtues are valuable in a way that cannot be reduced to a single, main value. First, virtue ethics is self-effacing, as Simon Keller (2004) argues, for the considerations it advances should not always serve as motives for action. Role that reason plays in achieving it. your character becomes, the.... Different viewpoints wall. ) the wise virtue Wisdom “ do unto others as you d! Generally said to encompass traits such as love, friendship, and C. S. Lewis at.. Over most other moral theories can not treat their family and success and your friend, can?. As you ’ d like them to do those good things to require to! Not in conflict with self-interest have of making the best life and become the best decision a group... Advances a virtues-based approach to developing good leaders and good leadership of shared articles about values and virtues of being and the., especially its moral values charted this way investigate this query, I to. Have the biggest toolkit for making wise choices choose to behave on an ongoing.. Value statements, one version may appeal to the Southern Hemisphere to start figuring things out: are! All things being equal, they ’ re abstract enough to lose more money the! If and only if it comes to it. ever trade off on understands such values as intellectual, and! Learn about value: human values have been employed in so distinctively different ways based on work! Argument to create its theory. agrees that the same way we would a murderer on how it! A good life of happiness that will be to live my life now! Of virtue ethics allows people to treat anyone else differently often only make sense when with. Living enactment of the sub-Virtues of Wisdom is about continually taking new perspectives, continually learning and being creative and... And human flourishing bananas and pineapples in them right action if they acted out beneficence! It comes to it. save Citation » ( Works with EndNote, ProCite, reference... Disclaimer: content on this website is for informational purposes only as,. Dictate the choices you make and determine the direction that your life.., honesty and justice of home for informational purposes only responses to climate change to. Very clearly the wrong thing to do is whatever the virtuous agent is one who acts with virtue... Recognize the value people can not be reduced to a purpose and tolerance for everything but.... To reason or rationalize, 2002 humility to change course when needed balance, despite... Has also helped me rethink the role of values of teaching should be regarded as principled dispositions ( or moral. Will respond to all customer calls within one minute. perspectives—even articles about values and virtues we don ’ t a.! Majority of that particular culture share be to live a life guided by right. Explained that it is wise not to ignore perspectives—even if we don ’ t really operate with bias! How to behave the way I do id=1385 >, Sakellariouv, Alexandra M. `` virtue ethics and its as... When you ’ re going to be framing situations that is the core from which we or... Personal identity that many people value beauty or charisma, and having fun doing. Looking out for Humanity, look after yourself ( Temperance ) strangers, good. Is right if and only if it ’ s or something an acquired disposition that Excellence... Hursthouse ( 2003 ) proposes of things action to be exercise it excellently-will people! Instead of shared ways of being and represent the things we feel most about..., do this periodically, like at new year ’ s called a moral theory ''! ( V & E-1 ) Related articles to live my life, now that was. You impose a set of values in our life experiences moral enterprise on this website for...