These new acquisitions were a problem for the British parliament because now they needed to stop settlers from the British colonies going into the new land in fear that the Indians would attack them. Whenever the English annexed any state of India into their domain they dismantled its army and disemployed the local soldiers. As part of the agreement for peace, the French offered to give all their holdings in America to the British. The coalition forces lead by Maratha and Mughal Empires and all other kingdoms were defeated by the British East India Company with the help of 21 princely states that were loyal to them. This war was not triggered by a single reason, but multiple factors played their role. Answer: Economic Causes: The British crippled Indian trade and created a high tariff wall in Britain against Indian goods and encouraged the imports of British goods to India. • In 1858, after the war of independence, India came under the British Crown directly. But when they realized that the Company was promoting Christianity in their land they became furious. /4 Q2.Briefly explain three reasons for The War of Independence of 1857? There were many causes of the War of Independence of 1857. History 1301 Causes of the Revolt of 1857: (a) Political Causes i. Doctrine of Lapse: Lord Dalhousie successfully annexed many Indian states to the English East India Company. These new programs had a significant impact on the people of the colonies, and caused a great uproar. The thirteen colonies moved from peaceful resistance to outright war against the British government’s “reform” programs of new taxes and regulations during the period of (1764-1783). With the onset of the the industrial revolution in England, many new industries came up and the dependance on Indian textiles came to an end. In the words of Lord Canning, Lawrence and Syed Ahmed Khan it was, indeed, the most significant cause. First war of independence, 1857. /7 Q3. I will explain some of the reasons colonists rebelled against the new reform programs, the roles African Americans played during the American Revolution, how the patriots achieved the unity needed to wage the War for Independence, and the impact the American Revolution had on the Native Americans. Write. But in the 18th century the pattern of trade underwent a drastic change. Before starting the discussion the causes of war, it is useful to clearly define “war”. Question 2: The First War of Independence of 1857 was the culmination of peoples’ dissatisfaction with the British rule. Thus after having been enslaved the second shock the local soldiers had to bear was unemployment that made them despise the foreign invader. A. The Revolt of 1857 is an important landmark in the history of India, which occurred during the Governor-Generalship of Lord Canning. The revolt of 1857 witnessed in large parts of North and Central India was an armed rebellion triggered due to number of political and economic policies of British. A brief account of these causes is given below: Since the battle of Plassey, the British conquered territory after territory to extend their empire. In 1857 British faced a serious challenge to their rule in India. World war one war one was a war not born from profound causes but triggered by a continents own insolence, competition and whom a nation was allied with. Besides, the English invariably maintained discrimination between their soldiers and the Indian soldiers in respect of salaries and fringe benefits with the result that the disheartened soldiers made up their minds to fight against the English. Because of all these reasons Kings, Princes, their courtiers and disbanded s… Since the British at home were highly taxed, Grenville’s solution was to tax the Americans since he felt they benefited from the war. The subsidiary alliance and the Doctrine of Lapse of Dalhousie angered Indian Princes. He was driven by conviction to bring all the Indian states ruled by local rulers into the fold of British administration. Disrespect shown to Bahadur Shah 3. This was done by using the provisions of the Doctrine ofLapse. The Indian Rebellion of 1857 was a major, but ultimately unsuccessful, uprising in India in 1857–58 against the rule of the British East India Company, which functioned as a sovereign power on behalf of the British Crown. For them the most sacred thing was their faith. The Company interfered in the internal matters of Indian States and followed the policy of divide and rule. After an American victory at Saratoga in 1777, France, Spain, and the Netherlands entered the war against Great Britain. This war is called war of Independence. The Sugar Act was something that actually reduced the tax on molasses eliminating the incentive to smuggle thereby increasing the amount of people willing to pay duty. Such a conflict is always an attempt at altering either the psychological or material hierarchy of domination or equality between such groups. Test. It is now an admitted fact that th mass uprising of the people of Indo-Pakistan against the British rule in 1857 was not a spontaneous reaction of alien rule but the emption of the volcano of discontent which had kept smoldering for about a century. Wars most often begin with a conflict in religion, feeling of superiority to others, and acquiring of wealth. The causes include many factors such as Political, Economic, Social, Religious and Military causes. Policy of expansion 2. All these attempts alienated both Hindu and Muslim Indians who realized that the White men were intending to devour their lands. [6] This caused Germany to lose a significant portion of its territory, prohibited the annexation of other states, limited the size of German armed forces and imposed massive reparations. The rebellion began on 10 May 1857 in the form of a mutiny of sepoys of the Company's army in the garrison town of Meerut, 40 mi (64 km) northeast of Delhi (now Old Delhi). October 12, 2012 The Company also declared that after the death of the then Mughal emperor, Bahadur Shah Zafar, his family had to move out of the Red Fort and his successors were also forbidden to use the title of emperor. Match. Some fought to preserve the interests that best served their nation, some fought to retaliate and some fought to become the king of Europe. STUDY. Treatment given to Nana Saheb and Rani Laxmi Bai 4. That’s why they introduced systems like Doctrine of Lapse by which Indian states could be taken over by the Company in case … Under this spurious doctrine, he annexed Satara, Sambalpur, Jhansi and Nagpur etc. This War was fought in 1857 by Indians against the British in order to get rid of their domination. Throughout the war, the British were able to use their naval superiority to capture and occupy coastal cities, but control of the countryside (where most of the population lived) largely eluded them. The causes of the War of Independence were political, economic, religious, social and military. The causes of the War of Independence were political, economic, religious, social and military. This dissatisfaction surfaced as a major revolt in 1857. There was a rumour that the greased cartridge had the fat … Created by. Causes of the War of Independence. They did this because they wanted total control of all aspects of the people's lives, otherwise they... ...WHAT ARE THE CAUSES OF WAR? What was the Immediate cause of Revolt of 1857 (War of independence of 1857)? The Sugar Act came about during the time that George Grenville was appointed as first minister. There are many causes for this war which are: Political. Change in pattern of trade and commerce  The Revolt of 1857 was a combination of political, economical, socio-religious, military and many other causes. A war seemed to be beneficial to every nation. ...Waging War for Independence (1764 – 1783) Similarly the introduction of some social laws added fuel to fire. The set of techniques used by a group to carry out war is known as warfare. War is an openly declared state of organized conflict, most often characterized by extreme aggression, societal disruption, and high mortality. People during this time were suffering on all the fronts economic, political, societal, etc. There are certain political causes of the 1857 revolt.. such as. Drawbacks of First War of Independence 25 Lack of planning, organisation and leadership Lack of common cause Lack of participation from all sections of the society Lack of resources Lack of nationwide dimensions Beginning of the movement before the fixed date (May 31, 1857) But, the causes of the Revolt of 1857 remains the same. These regulations made Indians realize that their faiths were in jeopardy. It was an extreme effort made by Indians, but they failed due to certain reasons including mutual jealousies, disunity, and lack of central leadership etc. This popular misconception has lead to the most important has lead to the real revolution being forgotten, the change in the way countries are governed and the ideas that lead to it. Therefore, to defend the colonists from Indians (and vice versa) the British parliament decided that the colonists should pay a small tax (compared to was paid Protests broke out, and eventually the American Revolution came into the picture. The causes of the War of Independence were political, economical, social, religious and military. It was a remarkable event in Indian history and marked the end of the Mughal empire and sealed India's fate as a British colony for the next 100 years.Causes for the RevoltThere were many causes that ultimately lead to this revolt. Combatants before 1778 in England) to pay a less than half of the money needed for the army that would be permanently stationed in the Americas, so parliament introduced the Sugar Act. In all cases, at least one participant (group) in the conflict perceives the need to either psychologically or materially dominate the other participant. • It ended the Mughal Empire’s reign completely from the political scene. The causes of war Political causes Religious causes Social causes Military causes Economic causes 2. Throughout the entire Bible God tells us that while we are on this earth, our sinful natures would drive us to war. Terms in this set (16) What were the political causes of the first war of independence? Annexation of Awadh on the charge of Mis-Governance. The war was the culmination of the American Revolution, a colonial struggle against political and economic policies of the British Empire. The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a conflict that erupted between Great Britain and revolutionaries within thirteen British colonies, who declared their independence as the United States of America in 1776. It is generally characterized by extreme violence, social disruption and economic destruction. It is also given names as Indian Rebellion, Indian Mutiny as well as Indian Revolt. CAUSES OF WAR OF INDEPENDENCE The mass uprising of the people of Indo-Pakistan against the British rule in 1857 was not a spontaneous reaction of alien rule but the eruption of the volcano of discontent that had kept smouldering for about a century. He researched about it and found out that it was for the first time that local rulers and zamindars stood against the British Rule. First War of Independence The revolt of 1857 was basically the outcome of the policy of exploitation and suppression adopted by the Britishers. As a sinful world, warlike tendencies are found in all species. THE CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF THE WAR OF INDEPENDENCE 1857-58 Q1. In 1931, an increasingly militaristic Japanese Empire, which had long sought influence in China[8] as the first step of its right to rule Asia, used the Mukden Incident as justification to invade Manchuria; the two nations... StudyMode - Premium and Free Essays, Term Papers & Book Notes, How Did The French Revolution Affect The American War. Causes of Revolt. In 1857 British faced a serious challenge to their rule in India. For which he started to use doctrine of lapse. Russia was trying to recover from a revolution that had occurred less than a decade ago. Economic Causes: Added to political and administrative distrust for the British East India Company, … 1. It is believed by many historians that Lord Dalhousie laid the foundations of the Indian Rebellion of 1857. The East India Company was aiming to annex all the states of India like Avadh, Tanjore, Jhansi, Satara, etc. Anjali_Gurajapu. Annexation of Indian States by Doctrine of Lapse Policy. With the end of the French and Indian wars, the first worldwide war, the British found themselves with a huge national debt. In addition to these reasons there was an immediate cause that coerced the Indians to go for war. War generally involves two or more organized groups or parties (often, nations). The war eventually widened far beyond British North America; many Native Americans also fought on both sides of the conflict. This provoked the rulers like Nana Sahib, the adopted son of Peshwa and Lakshmi Bai, the Rani of Jhansi. Colonists were divided over which side to support in the war; in some areas, the struggle was a civil war. B. Ruination of Artisans and... ... World war one, a great European war, nations conflicted and divided, aligning themselves with their own allies. The 1857 war of Independence was the culmination of various political, economic, social and military causes which burst forth in the from of the cartridge controversy, finally resulting in the Indian Sepoy Mutiny where a soldier named Mangal Pandey was the first to break rank. The resistance disintegrated primarily due to lack of leadership and unity on the part of Indians, as also to cruel suppression by the British Army. World War II started after these aggressive actions were met with an official declaration of war and/or armed resistance. Political Causes. Chapter Two The Causes Of The Rebellion Maj (Retd) AGHA HUMAYUN AMIN from WASHINGTON DC gives a brilliant analysis of the 1857 war of Independence The events of 1857 were unique both in terms of historical precedence and in terms of the socio-political sphere as far as India was concerned. On the other hand, there are also scholars who view the Revolt of 1857 as Sepoy Mutiny. Causes of the Revolt. It is now an admitted fact that th mass uprising of the people of Indo-Pakistan against the British rule in 1857 was not a spontaneous reaction of alien rule but the emption of the volcano of discontent which had kept smoldering for about a century. ...The Causes of American War of Independence Gravity. WAR OF INDEPENDENCE 1857. 5. Germany was another rising nation at the time, her and Russia had conflicts and a war between them seemed inevitable. Many provinces came into the control of the British because of these rules. The policy of Doctrine of Lapse was applied not only to Princes but also big Zamindars. Antrece Baggett 5. They can be divided into political, religious, military, economic and social causes. which angered the local ruler, who had to now live i… However, in order to understand the causes of wars one has to observe many other factors that play into the development of international conflict. Each of the European nations had their own goals and motives as to why they did what they did. They invented their own form of "Christianity" one that was controlled by the State. There were economic causes as well. From the beginning of time, God knew everything that was going to occur. This war is called war of Independence. WAR OF INDEPENDENCE 1857. Everybody was fending for themselves, For France if a war did break out especially between Germany and Russia, France would be able to attain previously lost lands from Germany. Many causes led to the outbreak of Revolt of 1857. The Treaty of Paris in 1783 recognized the independence of the United States. According to the Encyclopedia Britannica, war is defined as a “state of conflict, generally armed, between two or more entities. The East India Company was aiming to annex all the states of India like Avadh, Tanjore, Jhansi, Satara, etc. The East India Company that was eager to amass wealth out of the trade considered India no more than a field of producing raw materials for the industries of England. In this context, discuss about the economic causes. ii. There are many causes for this war which are: As British extended their control they introduced many ways of grabbing land like the use of Doctrine of Lapse was introduced by … /4 Q5.What happened at the battle of Kanpur? The immediate cause of the First War of Independence in 1857 was the introduction of the 'Enfield Rifle'. Please join StudyMode to read the full document. Such legislations badly hurt the feelings of Hindus. This led to extreme resentment among the successors of rulers who died without a natural heir. (a) Annexation of Avadh on the ground of bad-governance (b) Inefficient administrative machinery of the company (c) Growing suspicion among native rulers over Lord Dalhousie’s policies of … Spell. War is an organized and often prolonged conflict that is carried out by states or non-state actors. British traders made enormous profits in this two way trade. • The Muslims were shaken by the removal of Muslim authority. For instance, the English government banned Satti (Hindu practice of burning the widow along with the dead body of her husband), and allowed the widows to remarry. The subsidiary system with additional taxes even on uncultivated lands added fuel to the fire and economically devastated the common Indians. It is characterized by intentional violence on the part of large bodies of individuals organized and trained for that purpose (Encyclopedia, 2014). That’s why they introduced systems like Doctrine of Lapse by which Indian states could be taken over by the Company in case there was no male heir to the throne of the state. During the rule of the Mughals, not only the Muslims but also the Hindus would be appointed on all important positions but by the English the Muslims and the Hindus both were deemed as untrustworthy and consequently all the higher posts were held by the White men. Some of the political causes of the revolt are as follows: War of independence 1857 is a remarkable event in the history of sub-continent. "[7] The Kuomintang (KMT) party in China launched a unification campaign against regional warlords and nominally unified China in the mid-1920s, but was soon embroiled in a civil war against its former Chinese communist allies. Russia's civil war led to the creation of the Soviet Union which soon was under the control of Joseph Stalin. Causes of Failure of 1857 Indian War of Independence On April 27, 1857, eighty-five soldiers of a Bengal regiment of British East India Company, posted in Meerut, disobeyed the command of their senior British officer, to use the new cartridges for newly introduced Enfield rifles, … In Italy, Benito Mussolini seized power as a fascist dictator promising to create a "New Roman Empire. Stephanie Maharaj A country like France who pushed and encouraged nationalism and militarism was viewed as a powerful nation but because of its strong policies it was also recognized as a huge threat to other European nations. First, I will start with the opposition the colonists had when it came to the Sugar, Currency, and Stamp Acts. Unlike the Molasses Act which benefited the people of the colonies, the new acts imposed on them were just a burden and quite unfair. For the sake of convenience they can divided into the following categories.1.Social And Religious Causes2.Political Causes3.Military Causes | | Given below are the chief causes of the 1857 War of Independence : What was the War of Independence 1857? So, in this, the issue … Social and Religious Causes For example, the Nazis hated not just the Jewish Religion, but also Christianity. French involvement proved decisive, with a naval victory in the Chesapeake leading to the surrender of a British army at Yorktown in 1781. Political Causes; The East India Company was aiming to annex all the states of India like Avadh, Tanjore, Jhansi, etc These military aggressions were the decisions made by authoritarian ruling elites in Germany and Japan. Political Causes: The British policy of territorial annexations led to the displacement of a large … Explain the major events of the War of Independence /7 Q4.What was the issue of greased cartridges so important? Causes of the First War of Independence , 1857 There were many causes of the War of Independence of 1857. In fact the Christian missionaries all over India were being patronized by the British government and in 1855 the priests like E. Edmund professed that the whole of India should be under one religion, i.e., Christianity. For a new Enfield rifle introduced in the early period of 1857 the cartridges were covered with some animal fat that was supposed to be either of cow or a boar. The natives were either turned jobless or appointed on lower levels of the state departments. Learn. Under the doctrine of lapse, the British annexed any Indian state where the ruler did not have a male heir. Tyrannical Rule: • The rebels due to their incompetence failed to … ...Causes of War They purchased raw materials from India … The culmination of events that led to World War II are generally understood to be the 1939 invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany and the 1937 invasion of the Republic of China by the Empire of Japan. PLAY. War should be understood as an actual, intentional and widespread armed conflict between political communities, and therefore is defined as a form of political violence or intervention. India became a raw material producing country and raw material which was purchased from India at very low costs was processed into finished goods in the factories in England and then exported back to India. As British extended their control they introduced many ways of grabbing land like the use of Doctrine of Lapse was introduced by Lord Dalhousie was very unpopular. Although, it was unsuccessful but left great memories. Political Causes. In this... ...India's First War of Independence, termed Sepoy Riots by the British was an attempt to unite India against the invading British and to restore power to the Mogul emperor Bahadur Shah. 1. /4 Q6.Why did the War of Independence of 1857 … There were many causes of the War of Independence of 1857. (a) Annexation of Avadh on the ground of bad-governance (b) Inefficient administrative machinery of the company (c) Growing suspicion among native rulers over Lord Dalhousie’s policies of Doctrine of Lapse (d) Greased Cartridges They can be divided into political, religious, military, economic and social causes. But their English officers used force that offended the Hindus and Muslims alike and thus all these causes instigated the war in India to which we call the War of Independence 1857. His responsibility was to solve the debt crisis they were facing. The British brought into force the Doctrine of Subsidiary Alliance and Doctrine of Lapse. 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