[6] Even after being labeled a Jew, Hillesum began to report on antisemitic policies. The Dutch government established the camp in 1939 to intern Jewish refugees from Nazi Germany who had entered the Netherlands illegally. The antiques dealer listed the controversial item on eBay for €199. Another similarity between camp Westerbork and other concentration camps was the strict censorship applicable to letters and postcards that were sent by the prisoners. He was known for his brutality against Jewish inmates, kicking inmates to death. The camp continued to function after the German invasion of the Netherlands in May 1940. Construction and commissioning of the camp; 2. provides background information on the daily life in the camp and its role in the German concentration-camp system. ACCESS AND USE. Westerbork became officially a "transit camp" (Durchgangslager Westerbork). [2][1] Almost all of the 94,643 persons deported to Auschwitz and Sobibor in German-occupied Poland were killed upon arrival. In late July 1944, as Soviet forces approached Lublin, the remaining camp staff hastily abandoned Majdanek, without fully dismantling the camp. Kostenlose Lieferung für viele Artikel! [3] Jewish inmates with families were housed in 200 interconnected cottages that contained two rooms, a toilet, a hot plate for cooking, and a small yard. On 15 December 1938, the Dutch government closed its border to refugees. Following the war, Westerbork was first used as a remand prison for alleged and accused Nazi collaborators, and later housed Dutch nationals who fled the former Dutch East Indies (Indonesia). "Jodenvervolging: Nationaal Monument Westerbork", Cabaret Behind Barbed Wire: Max Ehrlich & the Westerbork Theater Group, List of major perpetrators of the Holocaust, Nazis and Nazi Collaborators (Punishment) Law, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Westerbork_transit_camp&oldid=995118966, Articles lacking reliable references from November 2019, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Polizeiliches Durchgangslager Westerbork, Judendurchgangslager Westerbork, This page was last edited on 19 December 2020, at 09:30. The Jewish refugees were housed after they had tried in vain to escape Nazi terror in their homeland. The reasons for the epidemics and contagious diseases that prevailed in Auschwitz concentration camp included the dreadful living conditions, which varied during the years that the camp operated, and were different in each part of the camp. Westerbork. Several hundred three-tier wooden bunk beds were installed in each building. Only 5200 of these people survived the holocaust. Literary and artistic works that survived the war reflect the Jews’ lives, agonies and efforts to maintain their human and Jewish identity. [12], A museum was created two miles from Westerbork to keep the memories of those imprisoned in the camp alive. Only one-half square kilometer (119 acres) in area, the camp was not built for the purpose of industrial murder as were Nazi extermination camps. Between 1933 and 1945, Nazi Germany and its allies established more than 44,000 camps and other incarceration sites (including ghettos). She was involved in Neu Beginnen, an anti-fascist group formed in 1929 by members of the Social Democratic Party, the Nazis’ primary political rivals. [2] As a tribute to those inmates who had died after deportation, a memorial was commissioned;[2] it consists of 102,000 stones, representing each person who was deported from Westerbork and never returned. Westerbork concentration camp (Dutch: Kamp Westerbork, German: Durchgangslager Westerbork) was a World War II Nazi refugee, detention and transit camp in Hooghalen, ten kilometres north of Westerbork, in the northeastern Netherlands.Its function during the Second World War was to assemble Roma and Dutch Jews for transport to other Nazi concentration camps. I first saw the documentary also called "Steal a Pencil for Me" and became very interested in reading all of the accounts that were told in the show again. Dampness, leaky roofs, and the fouling of straw and straw mattresses by prisoners suffering from diarrhea made difficult living conditions worse. Only the former camp commander’s house has been preserved, in a glass container.[2]. 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