that two factors have sustained patriarchy and encouraged female subjugation and intimidation. The rationale for such a practice in their opinion is again because it is a biblical injunction in addition to this being a tradition in the community. However, on asking women if they are happy with this ‘divinely ordained’ arrangement of relationships between the sexes, many respond negatively. Most religion is patriarchal at its core. In the focus group discussions (FGDs), when women were asked as to why they find participation in religious services important, besides the regular answers like faith in God sustaining them in times of struggle, some interesting observations were also made. Whereas those with lower primary level of education and with post-graduation or professional degrees have minimal engagement in church activities, it is those from the higher secondary to degree level of education who are more engaged. Also, as per Christian traditions, since Jesus selected only male apostles and did not ordain women, the inclusion of women is not considered desirable. Helen Hardacre, “Japanese new religions: Profiles in Gender”, in John Stratton Hawley (eds) Fundamentalism and Gender, New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994, 111–133. This is illustrated in Fig. God is depicted as a man. This was after Adam and Eve consumed the forbidden fruit; a folly for which Eve was categorically held responsible. Chapter 12: Religion and Patriarchy. This tendency of ‘patronising’ and ‘guiding’ is not restricted to Islam. See Susan Visvanathan, The Christians of Kerala: History, Belief and Ritual among the Yakoba, New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1993, 102–117. The role of religion in strengthening patriarchy in society is all too obvious. Majority attest to participating in the Family Units5 (74.2 per cent); some are active in Mathrudeepthi6 or Mother’s Association (34.2 per cent); some take part in cleaning and decoration activities (30.4 per cent); a smaller number participate in prayer groups (11.7 per cent) and still less women in the parish council (10.4 per cent). Tali is a medal, a pendant with the shape of alila (banyan leaf) with a figure of the cross embossed on it. For a Syrian Christian woman, the ta-li remains the chief symbol of her marriage, which not only elevates the woman to a married status but also becomes a symbol that the man who has tied the ta-li has authority on her body and her life at large.26 These rituals become ‘vehicles of consciousness and socialization’,27 and, even though celebrated very much as Christian rituals in a Syrian Christian marriage, they are clearly adaptations from the Ta-li ketu kalya-nam and Sambandham, the two customs that marked marriage in the traditional Na-yar community.28 While among the Na-yars , the two customs were separated over time as prepubertal and post-pubertal rites, the Syrian Christian marriage incorporates both into the ritual of marriage. Given the natural uncertainty that haunts their existence, the space of the home is seldom romanticized and nor does home appear a haven. The problematic of the nexus between religious indoctrination and gendered consciousness is that women tend to take male supremacy as a ‘natural order’ primarily because it is legitimized through religious mediation. Cf. The founders and early leaders of Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, and Chinese philosophywere all men, and their influence has dominated both belief and practice. This is a source of constant conflict in our otherwise ‘happy’ marriage. Many believe that the advent of Abrahamic religions led to the diminished status of women as far as the religious space is concerned. This ‘comforting valorization of motherhood’10 could be linked to a ‘naturalness’ attributed to procreative sex, and this in turn serves to reinforce patriarchal notions of what is appropriate femininity. This is also the reason why women are denied entry to places of worship when they are menstruating. They paint women as physically, mentally, emotionally and sexually inferior to men. This article is concerned with the way in which the power of religion and culture is used to perpetuate the hegemony of patriarchy and the subordination of women. Religion doesn't have as much influence in the public sector as it used to, and I think this is a major reason why we are moving towards a more egalitarian society. The encyclical Redemptoris Mater reminds that in Mary women are expected to see mirrored the highest virtues they are called to imitate, namely ‘the self-offering totality of love, the strength that is capable of bearing the greatest sorrows, limitless fidelity and the tireless devotion to work; the ability to combine penetrating intuition with words of support and encouragement’ (RM no.46). The following prayer is recited by the celebrant while blessing the tali: ‘Lord who took the church to be your bride through your death on the cross, bless this tali which will unite the bride and bridegroom in faith and love. Program events reflect themes decided on by a diverse committee of staff, students and faculty. The practice of Sati, or self-immolation by widows on the funeral-pyres of their husbands, thrived for centuries because it was rooted in the belief of futility of a woman’s existence without her husband. The data from quantitative research, which points to 60 per cent of the men considering that the good woman is always obedient, is an indication of the internalized religious injunction of men having the right to ‘rule over’ women. Maria Mies, Patriarchy and Capital Accumulation, 40. This religious indoctrination is transmitted mainly at the meetings of Mathrudeepthi, where the role of woman as ‘heart’ and ‘light’ of the ‘family’ are incessantly highlighted. That is because all religions are reflections of the societies which invent them, and most societies are still deeply patriarchal in their power structures. As noted by Nancy Cott, women never challenged the organizational society but rather accommodated themselves to it. The mantrako-di is a symbol of the responsibility on the part of the husband to protect his wife. The initiative in arranging a match is taken by the girl’s family, though kinship and friendship circles continue to play an important role in match-making.20 In the CSC community, marriage is solemnized within a Eucharistic celebration as customary of Catholic marriages. This being the case, it is understandable that a great majority of women of the CSC community believe that their husbands have authority over their bodies and sexuality. May the cross embedded on it give them strength to bear joyfully the ordeals of life and to live in holiness according to your will. In his chapter on Hindu fundamentalism, Hawley quotes a telling passage from the Bhagavad Gita in which Arjuna laments that a world in chaos leads to the corruption of ‘women of the family’, and this in turn leads to general social chaos.44 Religion here becomes a protective cover for women and acts as a remote control that directs how women ought to conduct themselves as members of a particular community or religious group to which they belong. See Ingelhart, Ronald and Pippa Norris, Rising Tide. Some of the clergy men interviewed as part of my study asserted emphatically about the role of man as the head and the woman as heart of the family based on a gendered theological anthropology that God has created man and woman different, although they are equal in dignity before God. In some communities of India, within a caste inscribed patriarchal framework, women are expected to cover their heads as a sign of their respect for men, mainly for the elders of the community. Religion, being one of the greatest identity markers of human beings along with other social factors such as caste, class and ethnicity, its role in the construction of gender identity is critically examined in this chapter. Having internalized vidheyathvam, the Syrian Christian women collaborate actively in the maintenance the domination-dependency paradigm as a pattern for man-woman relationships in the family. In a context like India, the intersectionality of religion, caste and gender buttress the prevalent gender order as brought out in the life experiences of CSC women. As John Hawley observes, by seeming to commodify or individualize women, removing them from their archetypal roles, modern society strikes a dangerous blow. The religious instruction in the ritual of marriage lays bare the caste–gender nexus of CSC theology. The expectation on women to be more religious than men is a central feature of the gendering of religion in the Indian society. Thus it should not be surprising that the treatment of gender in religions and cultures has changed throughout history. This program also highlights the work faith communities are doing to address religion and patriarchy. Association between decision-making and religious indoctrination in women, As the graph shows, with an increase in religious indoctrination, there is a stronger notion that decision-making is primarily man’s prerogative.30 The inference that can be drawn from this situation of CSC women is that we see religion reinforcing the existing gendered distributions of power. Thus, religion serves to mask the basic concerns of gendered power equations that underlie women’s exploitation by making them believe God is at work in their lives and their suffering is redemptive. It is believed that prehistoric societies and belief systems were matriarchal, as evident from their feminine-themed iconography. The graph is indicative of the influence of religious indoctrination to position women within a gendered framework,35 and this has direct implications on their conjugal life. Most religious texts openly discriminate between males and females when it comes to expression of sexuality and sexual desires. What Is The Point Of Netflix’s The Crown Season 4? The messages and structures of culture and religion are then reinterpreted to meet the new conditions. Provincial House, Department of Communications, 1995, 68. Data from the quantitative research elaborates the nexus between religious indoctrination (RI) and gendered consciousness and its impact on women. He is a family loving man, I have three daughters and though he wanted me to continue conceiving until I would give birth to a male child, this could not happen due to my gynaecological difficulties. I have the difficulty of a lowering uterus, a condition that gives me physical discomfort. An anecdote in the course of the fieldwork of my research would illustrate this point. The paper interrogates the nexus between gender, religion and patriarchy in a context where the marginalization of the female gender is continuous in spite of the strides in female education. See, The Syro-Malabar Bishop’s Synod, Syro-Malabar Sabhayude Koodashakal, Kakkanad: Major Arch Episcopal Curia, Secretariat Commission for Liturgy, 2005, 68–69. Women tend to believe that the suffering that is intrinsic to their gendered condition is virtuous and divinely ordained. See Vettom Mani, Amara Malayala Nikhandu, Kottayam: Urvashi Publications, 1973, 702 and 707. Though having no direct reference or endorsement in the Hindu scriptures, Sati was largely practised among certain Hindu communities because it conformed to the general idea of an ‘ideal’ wife as epitomised by Goddess Sati who immolated herself because she was unable to bear the humiliation heaped on her husband, Lord Shiva, by her father. 1 Religion is generally seen as a constitutive part of the ‘gender order’ in any given society, as it plays a decisive role in shaping women’s lives and in legitimizing their social subordination. (2008), 21–29. Using the thought of Rene Girard, she sees the links between violence, the sacred and sexuality and argues that Christianity, as a patriarchal religion, does violence to women through its preponderant use of male language for God, its traditional teaching on women’s inferiority, the Household Codes in the New Testament which mandate the subordination of women, and its hierarchical structure.46. Jessy, an academic opines that the headship of men ought to be the right order of structuring family life because ‘it is better for children’s growth besides being a divinely ordained norm’. The reading habits of women and men with regard to religious literature in the CSC community also signal to a gendered outlook. First, I will use a historical perspective to describe the advent and the perpetuation of patriarchy and the historical interrelationship between patriarchy and patriarchal religion. Chapter 10 of the organised religions of today were not discriminatory to begin with why women are deceptive temptresses not. Restricted to Islam custom of women by men is the relationship between evangelicalism and,... And regenerating moral character patriarchy continues to be observed, reproduced, and the ceremony of ta-liketu21 and mantrako-di22 specific. To lend some truth to this premise principal, shared her views in an interview. 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