Hyperlipemia syndrome is a metabolic disease of ponies, miniature horses and donkeys; it rarely occurs in horses. The practice of giving concentrate meal feeds put donkeys at increased risk (OR = 1.87; 1.18–2.96), which also was found to be a risk factor for impaction colic in a previous study.12 Concentrate rations were given to donkeys that were underweight, sick, or had other clinical needs; traditionally feeds were given once or twice a day. Tarrant JM(1), Campbell TM, Parry BW. They are efficient at storing and mobilising energy reserves which makes them prone to obesity, asinine metabolic syndrome (AMS) and dyslipidaemias. The mean age of donkeys with hyperlipemia was 28.6 years (SD = 7.9) with a range of 5–50 years. HYPERLIPAEMIA RISK FACTORS • Breed; donkeys are inherently insulin resistant. Tarrant JM(1), Campbell TM, Parry BW. The association of dental disease with hyperlipemia is unsurprising because impaired dental function or dental pain has been shown to be a risk factor for colic12, 16 and weight loss13 and undoubtedly may lead to a donkey being unwilling or unable to obtain sufficient energy for its daily needs. Univariable logistic regression analysis was carried out as an initial screening step to determine the effect of predictor variables (Table 1) on the dependent variable (presence of hyperlipemia). BW PARRY. Interestingly, this study showed no increased risk for female donkeys when compared to geldings (stallions were not available for study in this population as the charity has a strict no breeding policy), although other studies have found that females are more susceptible to hyperlipemia. Another common cause is overgrazing in a rich pasture. 0000001076 00000 n Older donkeys may be more prone to bullying and find it difficult to compete for food in mixed age groups. BW PARRY. Any event that causes a negative energy balance elicits excessive mobilization of peripheral fat to cause its levels to elevate in the blood. 0000001594 00000 n Mini donkeys could die from hyperlipaemia. For inclusion as cases, donkeys had increased triglyceride concentrations in addition to clinical signs as assessed by a veterinarian. Since the publication of the previous study and this study, The Donkey Sanctuary has ceased to use cardboard or paper as bedding materials, and we would urge other donkey owners and keepers to consider discontinuing this practice. Hyperlipaemia is a serious condition caused by too much fat in the blood. 7 days. h�b```b``cf`c`��� Ȁ ��@�������R( ��F���z�v�vݸo�#�e�e��z�q%0���h`� � V�( ����i���Xl�*� �&�/�4�rƥ�+3�`�f�f,f|�`ɠ���$í���5�K����+W�ƣR�Bɂ�L�ҷ �Z���6'̍\L&π43��T�€>�> Q�L��P �r �S�a�W����� ��Q � 6�1$ endstream endobj 168 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/Index[16 115]/Length 27/Size 131/Type/XRef/W[1 1 1]>>stream Donkeys are particularly susceptible to this condition. Search for more papers by this author. The change of site also predisposed donkeys to developing hyperlipemia. The build-up of fat is usually caused by a marked decrease in feed or when the quality of feed is low. SUMMARY The case histories and clinical findings of 15 ponies with hyperlipaemia are presented. Obesity is especially important to avoid in donkeys as they are prone to hyperlipaemia, a disease caused by too much fat in the blood, which can be fatal. All the Donkey Sanctuary's resident donkeys are weighed once per month using electronic scales as a management tool, and the importance of such monitoring to assess overall health is shown by this study. Even with dedicated care, the prognosis for donkeys with hyperlipaemia is also extremely guarded. Mini donkeys could die from hyperlipaemia. 0000010003 00000 n It is hypothesized that the donkey's natural preference for highly fibrous forages leads them to associate cardboard with food. Hyperlipaemia. Horses with insulin resistance, ponies, miniature horses and donkeys are at risk of hyperlipidemia (elevation of lipids in blood). The practice of feeding irregularly may produce peaks of insulin and may lead to the donkey being satiated for short periods of time. This is noted as a potential source of bias because some controls may have had subclinical increases in triglyceride concentrations. Variables with P < .2 in the univariate analysis were selected for inclusion in the multivariable model. Search for more papers by this author. Hyperlipaemia In Donkeys Dr Boyke several factors play into weight gain during menopause: And that can trigger increased appetite and calorie retentionand belly fat. Author information: (1)Department of Veterinary Clinic and Hospital, University of Melbourne, Werribee, Victoria. In some cases, the concurrent disease may be secondary to the hyperlipemia (eg, increases in liver enzyme activities caused by hepatic lipidosis). This study has demonstrated the propensity of the donkey for developing hyperlipemia, particularly when ill, which further confirms the requirement for all sick donkeys to be considered at high risk of becoming hyperlipemic. All donkeys presenting with an acute disease have blood samples collected if any suspicion of hyperlipemia exists to ensure that they do not have hypertriglyceridemia. The level of risk associated with concurrent disease confirms the long held belief that every sick donkey must be considered either to have hyperlipemia or to be at great risk of developing hyperlipemia. 0000010464 00000 n All donkey owners should be aware of hyperlipaemia. Therefore, screening was undertaken by examination of detailed clinical notes to ensure that the donkey did not present with clinical signs of hyperlipemia within the month before selection. The decisions to euthanize these animals also are likely to be influenced by chronic disease processes occurring concurrently with hyperlipemia as well as acute disease. Body condition score distribution is shown in Figure 2. z zyx Hyperlipemia i n 9 Miniature Horses and Miniature Donkeys zyxwvutsr Bonnie Rush Moore, Sarah K. Abood, and Kenneth W. Hinchcliff The medical records from 9 consecutive miniature horses (n = 5) and miniature donkeys (n = 4) with hyperlipemia (serum triglyceride concentration 2500 mg/dL) were re- support in surviving patients was 1 1 . 4). Of the donkeys examined, 18% had hyperlipaemia prior to or death or euthanasia and this was a risk factor for donkeys developing gastric ulceration; 62% of hyperlipaemia cases also displayed gastric ulceration (P < 0.001). Donkeys and small ponies are at greatest risk of hyperlipemia, with a prevalence of 3–5% in the general population and 11–18% in inpatient populations in veterinary hospitals.5 Previous studies have determined risk factors for the disease in populations of equids and have shown obesity, pregnancy, stress, and concurrent diseases to be important predisposing or precipitating factors for the development of hyperlipemia in both donkeys and ponies.2, 6, 7 Hyperlipemia may be a primary disease or may be secondary to another disease. Learn about our remote access options, Donkey Sanctuary, Sidmouth, Devon, EX10 0NU, UK. 0000013092 00000 n 19921, in which the mortality rates are high. The medical records from 9 consecutive miniature horses (n = 5) and miniature donkeys (n = 4) with hyperlipemia (serum triglyceride concentration > 500 mg/dL) were reviewed. It is usually easily corrected by feeding a normal meal. A retrospective case‐control study was carried out and it included all donkeys presenting with clinical hyperlipemia over a 4‐year period between January 1, 2005 and December 31 2008. 0000048181 00000 n Consequently increased plasma triglyceride concentrations (>5.6 mmol/l), visibly cloudy plasma and a sick, anorexic or hypophagic subject follow. Donkeys are trickle feeders and have evolved to eat for 14–18 hours per day, making such sporadic feeding practices less than satisfactory for this species.17 A previous study looking at gastric ulcers in donkeys at necropsy showed that those donkeys fed concentrates were at greater risk of developing ulcers and were consequently at greater risk of having concurrent hyperlipemia.18 Recent changes to feeding practices have been made and more emphasis now is put on the use of hay replacement products to imitate natural feeding behavior. Integra 400; Roche, NJ, Potential risk factors that were examined for both cases and controls are shown in a Table 1. With this condition, your donkey’s fat reserves become mobilized. These … Download Citation | Hyperlipaemia in donkeys | Hyperlipaemia is common in donkeys and is usually secondary to intercurrent disease. INTRODUCTION Hyperlipaemia is a life-threateningdisease of ponies and donkeys (Jeffcott et a/. 131 0 obj <> endobj xref Hyperlipaemia in a donkey. In the past, some of these cases may have been self limiting and not included in hyperlipemia studies. The early signs of dullness and reduced appetite can be difficult to detect. Serum triglyceride concentrations were determined from serum samples using an automated analyzer.22 Foot Problems and Care in Donkeys Donkeys’ hooves are more upright, smaller, tougher and more elastic than those of horses (Fig. Hyperlipemia results from a negative energy balance when fat reserves are mobilized and sent to the liver to be converted to glucose for energy. If donkeys were being administered short‐term antibiotics, they were at decreased risk of developing hyperlipemia (OR = 0.30; 0.15–10.61). (Special issue: Nutrition and health of donkeys in the tropics), Necropsy survey of gastric ulcers in a population of aged donkeys: prevalence, lesion description and risk factors, Case–control study to investigate risk factors for impaction colic in donkeys in the UK, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-1676.2011.00798.x, Farm location when at time of sampling, 8 sites, Time under Donkey Sanctuary management relinquished, Weight taken recorded preceding 4 weeks (kg), Body condition score (1–5 including ½ scores), Weight loss or gain of >10 kg in preceding month, Change in preceding 2 or 4 weeks in normal routine, Routine treatment in preceding 2 or 4 weeks, Veterinary examination in preceding 6 months, History of inappetance in previous 6 months. Event that causes a negative energy balance when fat reserves are mobilized sent! Problems are common in donkeys and is usually easily corrected by feeding a normal meal an increase in triglyceride! 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