Brainstorming, free writing, keeping a journal and mind-mapping are examples of divergent thinking. Without diversity, these divergent ideas will never see the light of day because people know that the herd mentality of the corporate zombies would trample all over them. The two older age groups outperformed the two younger age groups on insight tasks. The concept of divergent thinking was primarily proposed by Guilford (1950, 1967) and has been used in a lot of studies investigating creativity. Google Scholar. It can be highly productive to think differently, and it pays off in the long run. Following Markovitz (2013), firstly, an initial global level of divergent thinking sets the degree of abstraction of the procedure used to generate alternatives, which in turn defines the nature of the categories accessed. Home (2015) When EEG data were analyzed along the lower (8–12 Hz) and upper (10–12 Hz) alpha frequencies, the results demonstrated that the generation of unusual uses in the context of the Alternate Uses Test is associated with greater alpha synchronization in lower and upper bands compared to a task in which subjects were instructed to think of typical characteristics of conventional everyday objects. Convergent thinking and divergent thinking The psychologist J.P. Guilford first invented the terms convergent thinking and divergent thinking back in 1967. It is a spontaneous, fluid, non-linear mental approach based on curiosity and nonconformity. Novelty of divergent and convergent thinking; Divergence focuses on unique ideas or original products while convergence considers the utilization of previous techniques. However, divergent thinking, as the precursor to convergent thinking and taking place within a creative problem-solving (or top-down engineering design) process, does not have the same complete freedom. Four experimental groups; high versus low transformational leadership, and anonymous versus identified groups conditions, were compared with respect to fluency, flexibility, originality and elaboration. Here, we summarize studies that show that creativity develops considerably during adolescence with different developmental trajectories for insight, verbal divergent thinking, and visuospatial divergent thinking. Some studies showed that, when subjects increased eye blink rates, their performance in the alternative uses test also increased (Akbari Chermahini & Hommel, 2010; Ueda, Tominaga, Kajimura, & Nomura, 2016), suggesting that spontaneous eye blinks are an index of attentional disengagement from the external world, implicating improvement in divergent thinking. Findings indicate that both hemispheres are involved in divergent thinking, which is accompanied by both event-related increases and decreases in the neural activation. Specifically, whereas low-creativity subjects exhibited low EEG alpha on all three tasks, high-creative subjects exhibited high EEG alpha only during work on the Alternate Uses Test. After an initial period of divergent thinking, where diverse ideas are introduced, groups have to organize that information, focus on what’s most important, and make decisions in order to move forward into the phase of convergent thinking. Little, S.J. While both insight and divergent thinking tasks are used to study creativity, there are reasons to believe that the two may call upon very different mechanisms. Decisions on what the next step should be are based on correctness, and this is decided in terms of absolute norms such as truth, justice, or beauty, which change only slowly. Studies show that if you get a full night’s sleep, you will be twice as likely to solve a problem than if you stay up all night. The Alternate Uses Test is one of the most popular divergent thinking tasks. Unlike divergent thinking with convergent thinking there is usually a correct answer. … : First, generating additional hypotheses in divergent trials requires their maintenance in working memory. The idea of divergent thinking, however, remains influential in the area of creativity assessment, but divergent thinking is now mostly divorced from Guilford’s larger model and its 120 (or 150 or 180, depending on the version of the theory) elements.b, Massimiliano Palmiero, in Creativity and the Wandering Mind, 2020. Electroencephalographic studies of divergent thinking yield highly variegated results. > Ames and Runco (2005) tested the usefulness of SWOT (the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) analysis as an adapted version of divergent thinking tasks to predict entrepreneurship. Read more Collaboration: From groan zone to growth zone. > The process of figuring out a concrete solution to any problem is called Convergent Thinking. The 25–30‐year‐olds outperformed the two youngest age groups on the originality measure of verbal divergent thinking. This network is frequently activated in linguistic tasks, and its involvement is not surprising given the verbal nature of the stimuli and the task. 1 (2015), Differential Modulation of Performance in Insight and Divergent Thinking Tasks with tDCS, Vinod Goel, York University, University of Hull, IRCCS Fondazione Ospedale San CamilloFollow Assuming that abstraction relies to some extent on mind wandering implies that the categorization process involved in divergent thinking could also be associated to mind wandering in some manner. Water logic, by contrast, allows ideas to flow together from many directions according to the natural pathways in the material in question, just as water flows along cracks and depressions in the ground where there is no resistance, and forms pools and eventually rivers (creative ideas). These analyses indicated that RIBS predicts entrepreneurship while the divergent thinking task based on SWOT analysis does not. Almost all multiple choice tests that assess reasoning rather than knowledge require the person taking the test to use convergent reasoning. For example, the fact that a paper clip consists of metal could be emphasized in order to see it as a device for conducting an electric current. The created item may be intangible (such as an idea, a scientific theory, a musical composition, or a joke) or a physical object (such as an invention, a printed literary work, or a painting).. Neuroimaging studies of this paradigm also indicate no reliable changes above and beyond diffuse prefrontal activation. In fact, it is also a type of thinking very common in children, where joy, imagination, and a fresh perspective make their reasoning more free. From this perspective divergent thinking is a kind of problem solving. In the context of Match Problems, activation in right dorsal lateral PFC has been shown to covary parametrically with the number of generated solutions. Thus, there is no limit on the possible uses of a tin can, and no limit to the number of ways passengers could be carried. Bookmark The test measures divergent thinkingacross four sub … > The information and ideas obtained as a result of divergent thinking can be structured using convergent thinking to produce a single most effective answer. Greater alpha synchronization was especially prevalent in frontal areas of the brain. There are at least three possibilities for its involvement in divergent thinking ability. Libraries … Creative problem-solving tasks, such as insight problems, require individuals to apply divergent thinking to generate new solutions (incubation and illumination) and to apply convergent thinking to narrow down the options and arrive at the best solution (verification). We found that, in the case of the insight task the depolarization of right temporo-parietal junction and hyperpolarization of left middle temporal gyrus resulted in increased performance, relative to both the control condition and the reverse stimulation condition in both groups (non-native > native speakers). In fact, right dorsal lateral PFC has been implicated in tasks that require the integration of multiple relations and monitoring subgoal processes, as would be required here. When multivariate analyses were run by controlling for gender and group size, the significant main effects were for leadership and group conditions as well as an interaction effect of both on fluency and flexibility scores. In divergent thinking, the multiple answers are of equal value. You may have noticed, however, that it is hard to talk about divergent thinking without reference to convergent thinking. While creative ideas are often the precursor to progress, they also indicate that change is needed and change often has its enemies. Specifically, the Alternate Uses Task activated a left-lateralized network comprising the inferior frontal gyrus extending to the supplementary motor area and anterior cingulate. 8 Findings indicate that both hemispheres are involved in divergent thinking, which is accompanied by both event-related increases and decreases in the neural activation. Highly creative people exhibited the greatest variation in EEG alpha wave activity across the three tasks. So now that you know about three different types of creativity, insight, convergent thinking, and divergent thinking, you might think that the brain processes must be complicated. He argued that creativity is a natural resource and suggested that efforts to encourage creativity would pay high dividends to the whole of society. This program was developed by Sidney Parnes and colleagues during the 1970s and presents trainees with six stages of creative problem-solving. The two older age groups outperformed the two younger age groups on insight tasks. Divergent thinking: As discussed already, divergent thinking is actually a collection of unrelated skills that merely look similar at an abstract level. Divergent and Convergent Thinking in Creative Environments. Of course the downside of measuring creativity purely based on output is that it does not necessarily allow researchers to draw inferences about how that performance was obtained. On divergent thinking in the visuo‐spatial domain, however, only 15/16‐year‐olds … With this in mind Sosik, Kahai, and Avolio (1998) investigated the relationship between transformational leadership and anonymity, and divergent thinking. While both insight and divergent thinking tasks are used to study creativity, there are reasons to believe that the two may call upon very different mechanisms. They also found an interaction of transformational leadership and anonymity for flexibility. > However, assuming creativity is needed, and given that this article is focused on promoting creativity through training, it is valid to consider the degree to which creativity training helps people become more accepting of creative ideas. The convergence of neuropsychological and imaging results provides strong support for the role of right ventral lateral PFC in flexible strategy shifts in the context of Match Problems. Because some of the resulting ideas are original, divergent thinking represents the potential for creative thinking and problem solving. The term “divergent thinking” refers to that strategy of solving problems characterized by the proposal of a multiplicity of possible solutions in an attempt to determine the one that works. Divergent thinking … Divergent thinking, which is closely associated with creativity and the ability to conjure a multitude of potential solutions, can be enhanced through the use of analogical thinking. Divergent thinking explores various outward directions that can possibly lead to a solution whereas convergent thinking is quite linear and inwardly centers on the strongest solution. Vol. Different divergent thinking tests have been developed, especially in verbal and visual domains of knowledge (e.g., Torrance, 1974). Both insight tasks and divergent thinking tasks are widely used in the creativity literature. Divergent thinking is more than thinking outside the box; it’s thinking without the box, and imposing structure later. The goal of divergent thinking is to generate many different ideas about a topic in a short period of time. Sleep “Bed” might be your best bet out of the three. Variability-producing thinking is characterized as thinking that breaks the rules—of logic, of simplicity or symmetry, and of social conventions—by bringing together ideas that are usually kept separate. On divergent thinking in the visuo-spatial domain, however, only 15/16-year-olds … Table 5.2. and divergent thinking (Guilford, 1967). The combination process varies according to the task constraints or the generation rules (e.g., alternative uses, product improvement), which allow the construction of more flexible ad hoc categories. Solutions for Clients Across Business Requirements . Heilman, in Encyclopedia of Human Behavior (Second Edition), 2012. Convergent thinking is typically defined as cognition which moves toward a single correct answer whereas in divergent thinking cognition moves in multiple directions making new, original possibilities more likely—the reason measures of it are often used to assess creativity. Divergent thinking can be a useful metatheory, however, because it suggests the possibility of domain-specific divergent-thinking skills that matter in many domains, including skills that can be promoted using certain techniques. However, divergent thinking, as the precursor to convergent thinking and taking place within a creative problem-solving (or top-down engineering design) process, does not … Divergent thinking may play several roles in organizations. Rothenberg (1983) introduced the idea of janusian thinking, naming it after the Roman god Janus, who had two faces and thus could look in two directions at the same time so that he had the ability to deal simultaneously with pieces of information that would not normally be processed together. It underpins the creative potential rather than creativity (e.g., Runco & Acar, 2012), which relies on an open-ended mental process aimed at finding different solutions to open problems (e.g., alternative uses for a brick—Kaufman, Plucker, & Baer, 2008). It is closely associated with spontaneity, random thoughts, non-conformity, creativity and thinking “out-of-the-box”. Divergent Insights: We help turn Fortune! A matchbox can be regarded as a nonconductor with movable parts. They concluded that the selection of tests is important even when they seem to measure same or similar skills. Recently, Andreas Fink, Aljoscha Neubauer and colleagues have employed the Alternate Uses Test to study brain activity using EEG and fMRI in the same study design. For this reason it has been argued that good performance on Match Problems necessitates ‘set shifts.’ By relaxing the constraints placed on the problem space, set shifts effectively widen the problem space. Divergent thinking, or lateral thinking, is about generating multiple creative solutions to the same problem. Iveta Eimontaite, University of Hull On the contrary, convergent thinking dictates that there must be a certain answer with the highest value. Phil Charron Executive Vice President October 26, 2011. This deficit has been attributed to the role of the right frontal region in permitting flexible strategy shifts. Additionally, the theoretical framework a course designer used in developing the course is likely to have a pervasive influence on all four of these factors. Lastly, assessing an individual's response to creative work or examining the degree to which an individual accepts or even initiates creative action is an important aspect of creativity that should be examined. Divergent thinking is also loosely called ‘lateral thinking’, a term coined by the thinking guru Edward De Bono – author of ‘Six Thinking Hats’. The use of lectures, A-V equipment, case-based material, or cooperative learning activities fall into this category. The highest flexibility was observed in the anonymous high transformational group and the lowest was identified in low transformational leadership. Heuristic-Simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgements and solve problems efficiently -2 types: Availability and Representative. However, it is clear is that a person's productivity is an important aspect of their creative performance and should be included in an examination of the effectiveness of creativity training. Scratchley and Hakstian (2000–2001) used a battery of divergent thinking tests that were developed for industrial settings, including three components: the brainstorming exercise, which requires finding many solutions for a management problem; the similarities exercise, which entails finding many similarities between two different objects; and the association exercise which is about finding a word that connects three dissimilar words. On a cognitive level, one would expect a positive correlation between the number of hypotheses generated and the demand on monitoring resources and relations. The Press Edward … This leads to the thought that categorization of concepts (a form of abstraction) plays an important role in the manifestation of divergent thinking. Converging methodologies is important because EEG and fMRI, due to their greater temporal and spatial resolutions respectively, offer researchers different types of information and thereby a more complete picture about task-related brain function. While both insight and divergent thinking tasks are used to study creativity, there are reasons to believe that the two may call upon very different mechanisms. Specifically, Vinod Goel and Oshin Vartanian have shown that whereas engagement in Match Problems was associated with activation in left dorsal lateral PFC and right ventral lateral PFC, the latter structure was activated exclusively when subjects successfully solved problems that required set shifting. Divergent thinking is employed when an individual is faced with an open-ended task (examples were given earlier—“How can a brick be used?”). Convergent thinking was further broken down into verbal intelligence and working memory, which also predicted insight independently of each other and of divergent thinking … A divergent thinker thinks in a way that would include all the possibilities to get to a solution, giving creative ideas to make it work. Another classic divergent thinking task is Match Problems. Pretend play relates to and facilitates processes—divergent thinking, insight, imagination, and affect expression—relevant to creativity and creative problem solving (Dansky 1980; Fisher 1992; Moore and Russ 2008; Russ and Grossman-McKee 1990). The reasons for rejecting solution options in the engineering design process may range from cost (a solution is too expensive) and technical feasibility (a solution is impossible to implement) to safety (a solution is demonstrably unsafe) and risk (a solution poses an unacceptably high likelihood of a serious negative outcome). They found a main effect for transformation leadership, with the higher transformational leadership group scoring higher in originality and elaboration than the low transformational leadership group. Creativity and divergent thinking are key to solving problems. A motor-form divergent thinking task, consisting in producing acted motor forms (e.g., a basketball player), has been also developed (Palmiero et al., 2019). Trainees then completed a set of exercises to practice the techniques they learned during training. Divergent thinking is one of the most well-studied aspects of creativity. insight and divergent thinking capacities from adoles-cence to adulthood. It is true that there are an infinite number of ways that passengers could be carried, but achieving a practical solution dictates that many of these will be rejected during the stage of convergent analysis that follows our divergent synthesis. Course delivery includes variables such as how long the training lasts, the amount of lecture used, the amount of practice time given to trainees, the nature of the practice exercises, the amount of feedback provided to trainees, as well as other variables related to how the instructor communicated material to trainees in order to facilitate learning the content incorporated into the course. ____ is the characteristic of creative thought that involves the ability to produce many ideas. These findings call into question the usefulness of the divergent thinking … Marginal characteristics of a concept or object that are not central to its usual definition are emphasized and brought into juxtaposition with similar characteristics of other concepts and objects to yield unexpected associations. Laurie Miller and Lynette Tippett studied the neural architecture underlying the solution of Match Problems in patients with focal brain lesions. Available at: For instance, processes like brainstorming, creative thinking and free writing are parts of divergent thinking applied at the beginning … Secondly, divergent thinking extends the access to semantically distant categories. However, predictably, a different picture emerged from fMRI data. Cufflinks 3. The differences between divergent thinking in the top-down sense and divergent thinking in the bottom-up sense may seem trivial, and indeed, this is of little consequence to the general concept of divergent thinking. OUR SOLUTIONS . In addition to divergent thinking and problem-solving, creating innovative products, that is, measuring creativity in terms of productivity or performance, has been suggested as an alternative to divergent thinking or problem-solving. While both insight and divergent thinking tasks are used to study creativity, there are reasons to believe that the two may call upon very different mechanisms. J.P. Guilford is usually given credit for distinguishing between convergent and divergent thinking, but a few earlier scientists did recognize the value of ideation. Accessibility Statement. According to psychoanalytic theory (A. J. Cropley & Cropley, 2009), creativity involves biphasic thinking: an initial phase in which unfettered associations are made in the unconscious via primary process thinking (i.e., novelty is generated) followed by a phase in which these associations are admitted into consciousness in the realistic form of secondary process thinking (i.e., they are explored). It involves breaking a topic down into its various component parts in order to gain insight about the various aspects of the topic. That improv causes increases in divergent thinking (Lewis & Lovatt, 2013) helps explain the success of improv in creative fields such as business and entrepreneurship (Lubart, 2016). Zig where others zag. Unlike convergent thinking, where the individual gives the one correct or conventional response (e.g., “Who won the 1988 World Series?”), divergent thinking leads the individual to numerous and varied responses. They broadly fall into 3 categories: divergent thinking, artistic creativity, and insight. PUPOAJ Hold papers together 2. While both insight and divergent thinking tasks are used to study creativity, there are reasons to believe that the two may call upon very different mechanisms. Each of these parameters introduces constraints that, in effect, limit the available range of solutions from all possible solutions to a subset of feasible, practical solutions. Divergent thinking, on the other hand, is a more freeflowing process of generating as many possibilities as possible from a common theme. Also called: ‘Thinking … The current study A set of creativity tasks was administered to early (12⁄13 yrs), middle (15⁄16 yrs) and late adolescents (18⁄19 yrs) as well as adults (25–30 yrs). However, in the case of the divergent thinking task, the same pattern of stimulation resulted in a decrease in performance, compared to the reverse stimulation condition, in the non-native speakers. Divergent thinking is relevant here because it reflects the ability to generate many solutions to a problem or prompt (i.e., fluency). , Article 2. Rather than emphasizing one process such as divergent thinking, researchers using this approach have identified a wide variety of cognitive processes contributing to creativity. The literature lacks multivariate studies that report relationships between DTand its aspects with relevant covariates, such as cognitive abilities, personality traits (e.g. Of course, this system is highly vulnerable to error, … > Creativity and divergent thinking are key to solving problems. This training intervention was designed by Feldhusen and colleagues in the early 1980s and consists of 28 lessons on audio tape. Cropper, K. RozeThe contributions of convergent thinking, divergent thinking, and schizotypy to solving insight and non-insight problems. 1 By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Therefore, the generation of original solutions during divergent thinking can be enabled by the combination of related and unrelated categories. Iss. Thing you use to push that emergency restart button on your router 6. Seeing these two objects in this way would make it possible to utilize them as the basic materials for the construction of an electric switch. Anonymity condition yielded higher scores than identified condition in flexibility scores. Convergent reasoning or thinking is similar to that which has been termed deductive reasoning. Examples of Thinking Leading to Production of Variability/Orthodoxy. They broadly fall into 3 categories: divergent thinking, artistic creativity, and insight. The goal of divergent thinking is to focus on a subject, in a free-wheeling way, to think of solutions that may not be obvious or predetermined. Andrew Marvell Centre for Medieval and Early Modern Studies Archaeology and Landscapes Studies Research Centre / Wetland Archaeology and Environments Research Centre Blaydes Maritime Centre Centre for Applied Research and Evaluation Centre for British Politics Centre for City and Regional Studies Centre for Criminology and Criminal Justice Centre for End of Life Studies Centre for … Jung (2000–2001) compared transformational and transactional leadership in the conditions of real versus nominal brainstorming groups. The Runco Ideational Behavior Scale (RIBS) was also administered (Runco, Plucker, & Lim, 2000–2001). Investigating these two components of creativity has V. Drago, K.M. Admittedly, Guilford’s Structure of Intellect model was pointedly criticized, mostly because of the statistical methods used to separate the 180 cells (Carroll 1968). Goel, Vinod; Eimontaite, Iveta; Goel, Amit; and Schindler, Igor Furthermore, divergent thinking/doing is based on ideational fluency, but it also requires qualitative solutions that are mapped onto flexibility and originality. To measure same or similar skills are among the most effective answer to a problem solving, generate. Exactly this different poles of thinking—equivalent to the same problem and presents trainees with stages! ( numbers of businesses capacities from adoles-cence to adulthood a variety of tasks including social problem-solving planning... Also found an interaction of transformational leadership creative problem solving tasks clip ” Uses: 1 fall into 3:. Thinking are key to solving problems found for anonymity verbal and visual of! Enables subjects to remain noncommittal about solution paths and strategies while flexibly generating potential.. In conflict detection and/or resolution is widely recognized Guilford also suggested that creativity is a environment... 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