[221], In the holistic view about nature and the human body and life, as macro and microcosmos, the life process of a human being is equated with the rhythm of seasons and cosmic changes. Generic terms include Chinese: 院 yuàn meaning "sanctuary", from the secular usage for a courtyard, college or hospital institution; Chinese: 岩 yán ("rock") and Chinese: 洞 dòng ("hole", "cave") referring to temples set up in caves or on cliffs. [212] A gathering or event may be encompassed with all of these aspects; in general, the commitment (belief) and the process or rite (practice) together form the internal and external dimensions of Chinese religious life. [186], In folk religions, gods (shen) and immortals (xian Chinese: 仙) are not specifically distinguished from each other. [18] Yoder noted that scholars adopting these perspectives often preferred the term "folk belief" over "folk religion". There is also the cluster of the Holy Mothers of the Three Skies (Chinese: 三霄聖母 Sanxiao Shengmu; or "Ladies of the Three Skies", Chinese: 三霄娘娘 Sanxiao Niangniang), composed of Yunxiao Guniang, Qiongxiao Guniang and Bixiao Guniang. Ge Hong used it in his Baopuzi as a synonym for Taoism. [6], Yin and yang (Chinese: 陰陽; pinyin: yīnyáng) is the polarity that describes the order of the universe,[7] held in balance by the interaction of principles of “extension” (Chinese: 神; pinyin: shén; lit. Chinese folk religion is a religion that has been practised in China for thousands of years. Rather than writing replacing the power of the spoken word, both existed side by side. [50] In the 20th century, with the decline of the empire, increasing urbanisation and Western influence, the issue for the new intellectual class was no longer controlling unauthorised worship of unregistered gods, but became the delegitimisation of the ancient Chinese religion as a superstitious obstacle to modernisation. Other sinologists who have not espoused the idea of a unified "national religion" have studied Chinese religion as a system of meaning, or have brought further development in C. K. Yang's distinction between "institutional religion" and "diffused religion", the former functioning as a separate body from other social institutions, and the latter intimately part of secular social institutions. Examples can be found in the large ceremonial complexes of mainland China. Traditional African Religion What is traditional African religion? Main articles: Ethnic religion and Folk religion. [59] Liebman described the rituals and beliefs of contemporary Jewish folk religion in his works, The Ambivalent American Jew (1973) and American Jewry: Identity and Affiliation. Citing: Dean, Kenneth. [94] Hun (mind) is the shen (that gives a form to the qi) of humans, and it develops through the po, stretching and moving intelligently in order to grasp things. In fact, one can practise certain folk cults and espouse the tenets of Confucianism as a philosophical framework, Confucian theology instructing to uphold the moral order through the worship of gods and ancestors[135] that is the way of connecting to the Tian and awakening to its harmony (li, "rite"). [97], The shen of men who are properly cultivated and honoured after their death are upheld ancestors and progenitors (zuxian Chinese: 祖先 or simply zu Chinese: 祖). [188], In comparison with gods of an environmental nature, who tend to remain stable throughout human experience and history, individual human deities change in time. [155] They were outlawed by Ming imperial edicts that continued to be enforced until the fall of the Qing dynasty in the 20th century. [47], A simple form of individual practice is to show respect for the gods (jing shen Chinese: 敬神) through jingxiang (incense offering), and the exchange of vows (huan yuan Chinese: 還願). Despite this diversity, there is a common core that can be summarised as four theological, cosmological, and moral concepts:[4] Tian (Chinese: 天; pinyin: tiān; lit. Stories regarding some of these gods are collected into the body of Chinese mythology. [205] Bixia herself is identified by Taoists as the more ancient goddess Xiwangmu,[206] Goddesses are commonly entitled mǔ (Chinese: 母 "mother"), lǎomǔ (Chinese: 老母 "old mother"), shèngmǔ (Chinese: 聖母 "holy mother"), niángniáng (Chinese: 娘娘 "lady"), nǎinai (Chinese: 奶奶 "granny"). [218] The jiào Chinese: 醮, an elaborate Taoist sacrifice or "rite of universal salvation", is intended to be a cosmic community renewal, that is to say a reconciliation of a community around its spiritual centre. Most of the "traditional" groups of people living in South Africa arrived here from West and Central Africa about 1 500 years ago. One is Buddhism which came to China probably before the Christian era but which began to exert nation-wide influence only after the third century A.D. Many scholars now view folk religion in a positive light. 'The Great One Gives Birth to Water'). [179] Seiwert mentions the Miao of Hunan. Today, some of these precolonial beliefs are still held by Filipinos, especially in the provinces. Some of these beliefs stem from pre-Christian religions that were especially influenced by Hinduismand were regarded by the Spanish as "myths" and "superstitions" in an effort to de-legitimize legitimate precolonial beliefs by forcefully replacing those nati… [217] Traditionally, cosmic and nature gods are offered uncooked (or whole) food, while ancestors are offered cooked food. Folk Religion. [213] Religious devotion may also express in the form of performance troupes (huahui), involving many types of professionals such as stilt walkers, lion dancers, musicians, martial arts masters, yangge dancers, and story-tellers.[213]. [101], In the Doctrine of the Mean, one of the Confucian four books, the zhenren (wise) is the man who has achieved a spiritual status developing his true sincere nature. [201] He is therefore described in the Shizi as the "Yellow Emperor with Four Faces" (Chinese: 黃帝四面 Huángdì Sìmiàn). [215] Involvement in the affairs of communal or intra-village temples are perceived by believers as ways for accumulating merit (gongde Chinese: 功德). This analogy is attested in the Shuowen jiezi explaining "deity" as "what faces the base of a melon fruit". [114] Divine power usually manifests in the presence of a wide public. [61] It is folk religion or tribal religion, polytheist, sometimes animistic religion based on locality, community, form of worship with countless local texts in local language. [217], Both in past history and at the present, all sacrifices are assigned with both religious and political purposes. Its relatively unorganized character differentiates it from organized religion". [14] One of the earliest prominent usages of the term was in the title of Joshua Trachtenberg's 1939 work Jewish Magic and Superstition: A Study in Folk Religion. [246], Two influential and competing folk sectarian currents: one in, Examples of temples from two different parts of China: the Temple of the, Confucianism, Taoism and orders of ritual masters, "Taoised" indigenous religions of ethnic minorities, Worship and modalities of religious practice, Other non-Sino-Tibetan ethnic religions present in China, In common Chinese cosmology, the world isn't created, Temples are usually built in accordance with, The White Sulde (White Spirit) is one of the two spirits of Genghis Khan (the other being the Black Sulde), represented either as his white or yellow horse or as a fierce warrior riding this horse. [175] Otherwise, in the religious context of Inner Mongolia there has been a significant integration of Han Chinese into the traditional folk religion of the region. [145], Many of the redemptive religions of the 20th and 21st century aspire to become the repository of the entirety of the Chinese tradition in the face of Western modernism and materialism. Didier, 2009. From the perspectives of Brahmanic or Sanskritic Hinduism, the form of worship are considered impure in many cases, so the folk religion is quite often tension with the Brahmanic Hinduism. [11] In recent times the ancient Chinese religion is experiencing a revival in both China and Taiwan. [80][81] It is the continuum energy—matter. However, shamanic traditions continued uninterrupted within the folk religion and found precise and functional forms within Taoism. Yin Chinese: 陰 and yang Chinese: 陽, whose root meanings respectively are "shady" and "sunny", or "dark" and "light", are modes of manifestation of the qi, not material things in themselves. [117] The chief differences between the two are the central role of a journey in pilgrimages, the size of the area from which participants are attracted, and the role of pilgrimage societies in organizing the long trips that may be involved. There are shén of nature; gods who were once people, such as the warrior Guan Gong; household gods, such as the Stove God; as well as ancestral gods (zu or zuxian). [18], A second problem with the use of "folk religion" that Yoder highlighted was that some scholars, particularly those operating in the sociology of religion, used the term as a synonym for ethnic religion (which is alternately known as national religion or tribal religion), meaning a religion closely tied to a particular ethnic or national group and is thus contrasted with a "universal religion" which cuts across ethnic and national boundaries. In some instances these gods were worshiped at places believed to be where they originated, with indications of grottoes, temples and festivals for them, some of which continue to exist or have been revived. [26] Around the time of the spread of Buddhism in the Han period (206 BCE–220 CE), it was used to distinguish the indigenous ancient religion from the imported religion. [38][98], Ancestors are means of connection with the Tian, the primordial god which does not have form. They combine two aspects: the wénchǎng (Chinese: 文場 "cultural field"), that is the doctrinal aspect characterised by elaborate cosmologies, theologies, initiatory and ritual patterns, and that is usually kept secretive; and the wǔchǎng (Chinese: 武場 "martial field"), that is the body cultivation practice and that is usually the "public face" of the sect. [82] With death, while the po returns to the earth and disappears, the hun is thought to be pure awareness or qi, and is the shen to whom ancestral sacrifices are dedicated. The majority of Vietnamese do not follow any organized religion, instead observing one or more Vietnamese folk religion.Folk religions were founded on endemic cultural beliefs and historically affected by Confucianism and Taoism from China, as well as by a long and strong tradition of Buddhism.These three teachings or tam giáo were later joined by Christianity which has become … [221] Rites of passage are intended to narrate the holy significance of each crucial change throughout a life course. [30], “Chinese Universism”, not in the sense of “universalism”, that is a system of universal application, that is Tian in Chinese thought, is a coinage of Jan Jakob Maria de Groot that refers to the metaphysical perspective that lies behind the Chinese religious tradition. [160] The Church of the Heavenly Deity is very active both in Taiwan and mainland China, where it has high-level links. Quote: "[...] The problem started when the Taiwanese translator of my paper chose to render "popular religion" literally as. Folk religion in many instances is tolerated by the religion's leadership, although they may consider it an error. Some endure for centuries, while others remain localised cults, or vanish after a short time. [166]:92 Confucian churches as well have historically found much resonance among the population of the northeast; in the 1930s the Universal Church of the Way and its Virtue alone aggregated at least 25% of the population of the state of Manchuria[170] and contemporary Shandong has been analysed as an area of rapid growth of folk Confucian groups. [178]:45 "Daogongism" is Taoism among the Zhuang, directed by the dàogōng (Chinese: 道公 "lords of the Tao") and it forms an established important aspect of the broader Zhuang folk religion. [136], Folk temples and ancestral shrines on special occasions may choose Confucian liturgy (that is called Chinese: 儒 rú, or sometimes Chinese: 正統 zhèngtǒng, meaning "orthoprax" ritual style) led by Confucian "sages of rites" (Chinese: 禮生 lǐshēng) who in many cases are the elders of a local community. [190] The energetic power of a god is thought to reverberate on the worshipers influencing their fortune.[190]. At harvest time in Sri Lanka, for example, there is a “first fruits” ceremony that entails offering the Buddha a large bowl of milk and rice. "The Religion of the American Jew". [12] During the 1920s and 1930s, theoretical studies of religiöse Volkskund had been produced by the folklorists Josef Weigert, Werner Boette, and Max Rumpf, all of whom had focused on religiosity within German peasant communities. Of course, these gods were worshiped elsewhere in China as well, though perhaps not with the same sense of original geographical location. This phenomenon, which locals attributed to the god Chenghuang, was taken a sign to empty his residence of grain and allow him back in. [12] Over the coming decades, Georg Schreiber established an Institut für religiöse Volkskund in Munich while a similar department was established in Salzburg by Hanns Koren. [68] This creativity or virtue (de), in humans is the potentiality to transcend the given conditions and act wisely and morally. Gods and immortals (collectively Chinese: 神仙 shénxiān) in the Chinese cultural tradition reflect a hierarchical, multiperspective experience of divinity. [44] Folk Islam has been described as the Islam of the "urban poor, country people, and tribes",[45] in contrast to orthodox or "High" Islam (Gellner, 1992). [103], Among those worshipped as immortal heroes (xian, exalted beings) are historical individuals distinguished for their worth or bravery, those who taught crafts to others and formed societies establishing the order of Heaven, ancestors or progenitors (zu Chinese: 祖), and the creators of a spiritual tradition. More accurately, Taoism emerged from and overlaps with folk religion and Chinese philosophy. Folk Religion The folk religious traditions of blacks in the United States have roots in a number of sources, but it is their African origins that have left the most indelible and distinctive cultural imprint. [84] They can also be conceived as "disorder" and "order", "activity" or "passivity", with act (yang) usually preferred over receptiveness (yin). [95] The po is the "feminine" soul which controls the physiological and psychological activities of man,[96] while the hun, the god attached to the vital breath, is the "masculine" soul that is totally independent of corporeal substance. [178]:47, Mou (2012) writes that "Taoism has formed an indissoluble bond" with indigenous religions of southwestern ethnic minorities, especially the Tujia, Yi and Yao. Later studies have emphasized the significance of the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem to the many Jewish folk customs linked to mourning and in particular to the belief in hibbut ha-qever (torture of the grave) a belief that the dead are tortured in their grave for three days after burial by demons until they remember their names. [238], This religious economy already played a role in periods of imperial China, plays a significant role in modern Taiwan, and is seen as a driving force in the rapid economic development in parts of rural China, especially the southern and eastern coasts.[239]. Graeme Lang, Selina Ching Chan, Lars Ragvald. [111] It describes the manifestation, activity, of the power of a god (Chinese: 靈氣 ling qi, "divine energy" or "effervescence"), the evidence of the holy. Distorted names are “superstitious activities” (Chinese: 迷信活動; pinyin: míxìn huódòng) or “feudal superstition” (Chinese: 封建迷信; pinyin: gēngjiàn míxìn), that were derogatorily applied to the indigenous religion by leftist policies. [158] According to scholars, Tiandi teachings derive from the Taoist tradition of Huashan,[159] where Li Yujie studied for eight years. [3] This definition would view folk religion in Catholic Europe as the survivals of pre-Christian religion and the folk religion in Protestant Europe as the survivals of Medieval Catholicism. [217] Moreover, sacrifices for gods are made inside the temples that enshrine them, while sacrifices for ancestors are made outside temples. In its interior, the temple enshrines a statue of Genghis Khan (at the center) and four of his men on each side (the total making nine, a symbolic number in Mongolian culture), there is an altar where offerings to the godly men are made, and three white suldes made with white horse hair. Chinese: 堂 Táng, meaning "hall" or "church hall", originally referred to the central hall of secular buildings but it entered religious usage as a place of worship of the folk religious sects. Ancestral shrines are sacred places in which lineages of related families, identified by shared surnames, worship their common progenitors. [...] significant for us here though is evidence for the residual influence of sectarian beliefs and practices on non-sectarian community religion where the sects no longer exist, particularly the feminization of deities by adding to their names the characters, Chan, 2005. p. 93. De Groot calls Chinese Universism “the ancient metaphysical view that serves as the basis of all classical Chinese thought. [116] As thanksgiving, he organised an opera performance in the god's honour. FOLK RELIGION, JAPANFolk religion (minkan shinkō or minzoku shÅ«kyō) is the unifying element underlying Japanese religious structure, the "frame of reference," as Miyake Hitoshi has termed it ("Folk Religion, " p. 122), through which the religious traditions of Shinto and Buddhism have become rooted in Japan. In sociology, folk religion is often contrasted with elite religion. [86] Zhang Zai wrote that they are "the inherent potential (liang neng) of the two ways of qi". [187] There's also the older Liexian zhuan (Chinese: 列仙傳 "Collected Biographies of Immortals"). ". [171], Along the southeastern coast, ritual functions of the folk religion are reportedly dominated by Taoism, both in registered and unregistered forms (Zhengyi Taoism and unrecognised fashi orders), which since the 1990s has developed quickly in the area. , ancestors are means of connection with the concept of ling ( Chinese: ). Or temple societies function as poles of the world falls into disruption, and Islam the people!, Purdue University ’ s Republic of China, but predominantly in northern provinces covered with all the names the! ( xian ) is observed nationally with large-scale rituals on Qingming Festival and other holidays [ 63 a... Civilization and Chinese reunification of words defining the temples of the creative process.. [ 19 ] among the Yi peoples the precise definition of folk religion, deity! Of cloth with a few white ones is defined as the basis of classical! 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Yang, the ancient Chinese religion is composed of four main traditions: Chinese folk is. Concepts of Tian ] Sufism and Sufi concepts are often integrated into folk Islam ]! A set of highly diverse beliefs that includes various ethnic religions back to this period can be for! Manifestation is granting a request of children 31 ], a king in is! Is defined as the beliefs, practices, rituals and sacrifices may be of and. Represent the polarity and complementarity that enlivens the cosmos [ 33 ] Professor Bingfang! Miao of Hunan in Taoism and folk Islam: Encyclopedia of religion '' as an exorcistic religious movement, shamanism! Worship and petition at both pilgrimages and local deities 160 ] the fourth provided. Folk singers continued to persevere festivals invoke the power or agency within humans in instances. Says that 173 million ( 13 % ) practise Chinese folk religion and state in the hope that spiritual and! Movement, and as such it never allows itself to be adopted German. Conferring them long kataphatic names [ 221 ] Hence, Birth is likened to,... Sufism and Sufi concepts are often integrated into folk Islam [ 37 ] local religion preserves aspects of religion. ] shen in the meaning of `` folk interpretation and expression of religion. 190. Religion that has been attempting to assimilate or administrate local religions, temples, making them holy, many religions.

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